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Duplex to Shine in DNA Design

An Australian-led design consortium will put a new twist on bridge construction with a 280 metre long stainless steel pedestrian bridge spanning across Marina Bay, the foreshore to Singapore's CBD. The bridge will link the highly anticipated Marina Bay Sands resort to a bayfront promenade linking major cultural, tourist and recreational sites.

Selected from a field of 36 international teams, the design team, incorporating Australian architects the Cox Group, engineers Arup and Singapore-based Architects 61, has designed an entirely new concept in bridge construction, based on the double helix structure of DNA.

The double helix will carry a metre wide pedestrian walkway running parallel to a six lane vehicular bridge, which is part of the same $68 million project.

Arup senior associate Greg Killen said the pedestrian bridge was a true world first, in that it did not use any of the known support mechanisms which categorise all bridges built to date. The shape of the bridge can be described as two slinkies, one stretched out slightly further than the other, flipped, and then placed inside the first. This shape is then doubly bent to form a smooth curve.

As far as we know, this design direction has not been explored before, Mr Killen said.

An Arup-designed structural optimisation program confirmed the unique design concept offered substantial structural performance.

Mr Killen said the helix tubes touch only under the deck and the unravelling forces were captured elsewhere by light stiffening rings that hold the opposing tubes apart (rather than together) in a kind of structural magnetism.

The concept enabled the use of five times less steel than a conventional box girder bridge of the same length, which meant the budget would run to the use of stainless steel.


We chose to design in duplex stainless because we've used it on a number of projects before and while the strength is comparable to structural mild steel, the maintenance costs are reduced and the total life of the bridge is extended beyond 100 years, Mr Killen said.

There is a perception in the marketplace that the cost of grade 2205 duplex is much more than austenitic varieties such as 316. This is not the case and while there is great fluctuation in both prices, the fabrication costs are similar (although some of the processes are slightly different).

The higher strength of 2205 makes a big difference, especially on longspan structures where the self weight is often the major design driver. 2205 also has superior durability including resistance to the tea staining that plagues many austenitic structures.

Singapore, a busy air hub with a very small land area, has become well respected for the quality of their buildings and infrastructure.

Singapore is not only clean and leafy, there is a noticeable emphasis on quality urban design. The urban landscape includes extensive use of materials such as stone, glass and metals where Australian cities may favour cheaper, less durable solutions. This makes Singapore the perfect platform for the world's first double helix bridge, Mr Killen said.

The project will use 370 tonnes of duplex stainless steel for the superstructure, including pipe, and welded plate and tapered sections. Stainless finishes selected by the Cox Group include a combination of bead blasting and polishing, with one of the slinkies to be highly polished and the other bead blasted, using olivine, a magnesium silicate medium.

The project, which is currently out to tender, is expected to begin construction at the end of this year and be completed in 2009.

Images courtesy of Arup + Cox + Architects 61
This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 37, Spring 2006.

Curved Spine Leaves Strong Impression

If you’re investing in a home overlooking the water at Noosa, Queensland, you will almost certainly want the fittings to be impressive.

Sunshine Coast ASSDA Accredited Fabricator, Bell Stainless, rose to the challenge at this Noosa property by designing and building a single stringer staircase and balustrade that leaves a lasting impression.

The curved staircase features 15 timber treads which are bolted onto 6mm grade 316 stainless steel plates, which are then welded onto the stringer.

The handrail is made from grade 316 with a No 4 finish and the balustrade in-fills are made from 10mm solid rod.

Bell Stainless General Manager David Vine said the more than 90 degree curve of the staircase created some design challenges.  
“Because you can’t roll the pipe in a corkscrew for the stringer we started with a curve on a flat plane then used a series of cuts to corkscrew it,” Mr Vine said.

“Of course, we also had to be careful not to distort the angle when the tread plates were welded on.  It was an interesting challenge.”  
Mr Vine said even though the staircase was indoors, the salty coastal environment meant grade 316 stainless was the logical choice for this upmarket home.

“We steered away from stainless steel wire for the balustrades because of the inherent difficulties with teastaining in the crevices, and because we needed to maintain an even curve to match the top rail,” Mr Vine said.

The stringer was fabricated in two halves and assembled on-site.

Mr Vine said because of the high tensile strength of stainless, there was very little flexing as people move up and down the staircase.

“The owners were really happy with the final outcome and we’ve had a number of enquiries from people who’ve seen it.”

The stainless steel was supplied by Fagersta, Brisbane.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 42.

Celebrating Melbourne City's Cultural Links in Stainless

Piazza Italia at the northern end of Argyle Square on Lygon Street, Carlton is Melbourne's newest public open space and meeting place was officially opened on 29 January 2006

 

Lord Mayor John So said the Piazza will be a wonderful addition to Melbourne's famous Italian cultural precinct.

 

“For generations, Argyle Square has been a place where city residents, workers and visitors have stopped to soak up the atmosphere of Lygon Street, eat gelati and catch up with friends and family,” the Lord Mayor John So said.

The northern end of Argyle Square features new gardens, traditional porphyry stone paving, a giant 45m2 solar clock and stainless steel street furniture.

ASSDA Accredited Fabricator T.R.J. Engineering fabricated the 16 stainless steel double bench seats for the redevelopment.

In December 2005, Melbourne City Council released a statement announcing that all powder-coated seats, litter bins, benches and drinking fountains in the city centre will be replaced with stainless steel finishes over the next ten years to give the streetscape a sleek, modern feel.

Lord Mayor John So said the stainless steel replacements would be designed to improve its functionality for the elderly, the young and people with disabilities, while withstanding high levels of wear and tear.

“The maintenance cost of stainless steel is half that of powder-coated items, while its lifespan is twice as long,” the Lord Mayor said.

Also, to celebrate Melbourne's successful hosting of the 2006 Commonwealth Games and to recognise the many athletes who participated, Melbourne City Council commissioned T.R.J. Engineering to fabricate stainless steel cladding for existing street poles in Bourke Street.

These cladded fabrications proudly feature the names of all the teams that competed in the Melbourne 2006 Commonwealth Games acid etched into the stainless steel.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 35, Autumn 2006.

Brisbane RiverWalk: Floating in Stainless

Brisbane residents can now walk on water with the completion of the Brisbane City Council's RiverWalk floating walkway.

Stainless steel is at the heart of the 850 metre-long, 5.4 metre-wide pontoon system that effectively connects the city and the inner suburb of New Farm.

The pontoon structure, positioned 35 metres from the riverbank, has been designed to allow people to experience the feeling of being on the river - of literally walking on water.

Brisbane Lord Mayor Tim Quinn said "Brisbane is now truly Australia's River City as we're making greater use of our river system than any other state in the country.

"Completion of this vital section of RiverWalk will also have the added benefit of enhancing the city's public transport network by offering immediate access to interchanges including City Cat, ferry services, bus and rail."

Made up of a state-of-the-art pontoon system that wraps around the shoreline, it boasts world first technology that was designed and engineered in Queensland.

ASSDA supported the project by responding to more than 40 enquiries for technical assistance for the Brisbane City Council project.

Fabricating the Top-Side Structure

ASSDA member, Pryde Fabrication, supplied 35 tonnes of handrails and posts to the $13.5 million project and was instrumental in fabricating many of the environmental design elements featured on the walkway.

Pryde produced 60 individually curved handrails to create a visual effect of the ebb and flow of the Brisbane River, whilst support posts and the straining posts that holds all the load incorporates a distinct 'mangrove' design.

Grade 316 stainless steel was used throughout the fabrication of handrails, balustrades and staunches with a smooth surface finish enhanced by electropolishing.

RiverWalk Stainless Steel - ASSDA Members Suppliers

Pryde Fabrication Top-side structure - handrails, balustrades and staunches
Arminox Australia Reinforcing bars in pontoons
Ronstan International Cables and rigging materials
Sandvik Stainless steel supply to Pryde Fabrication
Atlas Speciality Metals Stainless steel supply to Pryde Fabrication
Condamine Wellscreens Electropolishing services to Pryde Fabrication
Johnson Screens Stainless steel supply to Pryde Fabrication
Tom Stoddart Pty Ltd Supply of stainless steel pole guides

Reinforcing the Pontoons

The key to RiverWalk's extended lifecycle was the use of stainless steel reinforcement by ASSDA member, Arminox Australia in the design of the 287 floating pontoons.

Most concrete reinforcing uses carbon steel, however, in marine structures where the material is exposed to chlorides in the salt water, it can corrode and cause the concrete to crack and deteriorate over time.

Arminox supplied 140 tonnes of reinforcing bar material, cut and bent to the customer's schedule in 10, 12 and 16 mm diameters.

Using specialised machinery, Arminox was able to save Brisbane City Council thousands of dollars by cutting out and tying a number of lap joints with a 40mm diameter overlap.

By reducing the thickness of concrete cover the Council saved two cubic metres of concrete per pontoon.

This initiative resulted in a lighter pontoon that contributed to increased buoyancy and lower costs for the Council.

With a total of 450 kg per pontoon, tighter tolerance control meant enhanced low material wastage.

Stainless reinforcing builds corrosion resistance into the concrete and durability has been proven over many decades.

World Class Achievement

ASSDA congratulates all members who supplied stainless steel to the Brisbane City Council's RiverWalk floating walkway, naming the project "a Queensland world class achievement designed to last 100 years with minimal maintenance".

ASSDA Executive Director, Richard Matheson inspected the 850 metre floating pontoon system after its official launch in December 2003 and congratulated the Brisbane City Council on a durable feature that would only have been made possible with stainless steel.

"The RiverWalk is a world class achievement designed to last 100 years and to achieve this aim 181 tonnes of stainless steel was specified for its durability in not only handrails, posts and cabling but also for reinforcing in the pontoons," Richard Matheson said.

"Stainless steel is at the heart of the RiverWalk project because of the material's non-corrosive properties and excellent presentation despite harsh environments," said Mr Matheson.

The RiverWalk will now provide direct riverfront access for around 20,000 walkers, cyclists, joggers and rollerbladers everyday.

RiverWalk Stainless Steel Specification Checklist

  • 850 metre floating walkway
  • 287 floating pontoons
  • 181 tonnes of stainless steel
  • 20 km of stainless steel wire
  • 2,534 kg of stainless steel wire cable
  • 135 kg of stainless steel rigging fittings
  • 1,800 linear metres of handrail
  • 1,750 support posts/staunches
  • 60 individually curved panels
  • 140 tonnes of reinforcement bars
  • 35 tonnes of handrail and posts

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 27, February 2004.

Stainless Vision

Inspiration from Medieval Tale

The lance used by St George to slay the dragon in Medieval mythology - Ascalon - has inspired a stunning addition to Perth’s St George’s Cathedral forecourt.

Ascalon portraitAscalon, designed by Perth artist Marcus Canning and New York based Christian de Vietri, was chosen as the winning piece from an international competition attracting 99 entries.

The sculpture features an 18m grade 316 stainless steel telescopic pole with a mirror finish, surrounded by a billowing white fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) ‘cape’, which represents St George on his steed.

ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Diverse Welding Services was commissioned by engineers and project managers Capital House Australasia to create the pole, which weighs about 2 tonnes.

Capital House managing director John Knuckey said the artists had a vision for the sculpture and his team’s role was to make it happen. He said the strength of the central pole was a concern for the artists, while the structural engineers were strongly focussed on minimising vibrations and maximising stiffness.

Capital House’s research indicated that 316 would be the most appropriate grade and their interest in selecting from standard sections determined the dimensions.

“The pole also had to be dead straight because people would pick it by eye if it wasn’t,” Mr Knuckey said. “We had no desire to compromise on quality but we were concerned that polishing would be too expensive, so originally only the bottom third was going to be mirror polished. In the end Diverse Welding Services said they could achieve a mirror finish on the entire pole and they did an excellent job.

“At first we weren’t sure who to trust with the job, but once we had visited Diverse Welding’s factory, we knew they were the right people.”

Diverse Welding Services director Karl Schmidt said their main challenge was determining the weld design to ensure the work conformed to AS1554 Part 6.

They welded together stainless steel pipe in differing dimensions to create the telescopic shape of the pole and produced joining spigots from plate (supplied by ASSDA Member Stirlings Australia), enabling the pole to be bolted to the FRP ‘cape’.

Ascalon joining spigotsThe sections were rotated on horizontal positioners and welded using stainless steel flux cored wire and TIG welding processes. The pole was given a full mirror finish and passivated using a citric based product.

Artist Marcus Canning said Diverse Welding and Capital House were fantastic to work with on the project.

“It was a late decision to shift to a telescopic design, which increased the complexity of the job under a pressured timeline, but they rolled with it and did what they had to do to get the job done, and done right,” Mr Canning said.

“The pole is such an important element to the work now it’s in situ and responding to the elements - the mirror finish makes its quality shift dramatically throughout the day and night as lighting conditions change.”

The sculpture was created following a $500,000 donation from Australian prospecting geologist Marc Creasy to the Cathedral Arts Foundation, and the only guideline was the theme of St George and the dragon.

Images courtesy of Marcus Canning.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 48, Autumn 2011.

Pipes Run Half Marathon

That deserves a drink!

A joint venture between two ASSDA Members has seen 21km of stainless steel pipe work installed as part of the greenfields Bluetongue Brewery recently completed at Warnervale on the Central Coast of NSW.

Bluetongue Brewery 3Bluetongue Brewery 2The $120 million Pacific Beverages brewery, which officially opened in November 2010, contains more than 2000 tonnes of stainless steel, including more than 120 tonnes of tube sourced in Australia through ASSDA Sponsor Atlas Steels.

The brewery construction was overseen by German brewery manufacturer Ziemann, who contracted ASSDA Accredited Fabricators TFG Pty Ltd and TripleNine Stainless Pty Ltd as the sole installation partners for the stainless steel components.

TFG/TripleNine assembled and installed the pumps, heat exchangers, valves, brewing vessels and fermentation tanks, as well as fabricating and installing all the pipework.

TFG Manager Tom Moultrie said they used grade 304 and 316 tube ranging from 25mm to 100mm in diameter. To ensure accuracy, speed, efficiency and quality, specialist sanitary welders orbital welded the tube on site. The construction phase lasted 8 months and, at the height of the project, TFG/TripleNine had 60 fabricators on site.

Mr Moultrie said the scope and size of the project were the motivating factors behind the first-time joint venture.

“The joint venture made sense because both companies could continue to service our other clients during the construction phase, as well as meeting the tight deadline,” he said.

Ziemann project manager Sven Mauchnik said TFG/TripleNine were chosen due to their brewery experience and their ability to match the tight time schedule.

“We were able to build the complete brewery within 8 months and make the first brew on the original planned date,” Mr Mauchnik said. “The quality TFG/TripleNine delivered was beyond our expectation, which is obvious for everybody who visits the brewery.”

TFG/TripleNine installed 48 silos, including fermentation and storage vessels around 18m high. Two cranes were used to install four vessels a day.

The fermentation tanks and brewing vessels were manufactured abroad by Ziemann to assist in meeting the tight time frames.

The Bluetongue Brewery is unique in its design because it has twin-stream brew houses under one roof, which allow for brewing flexibility.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 48, Autumn 2011.

Grade 431

A versatile, high strength martensitic stainless steel

Martensitic stainless steels are a less well-known branch of the stainless family. Their special features – high strength and hardness – point to their main application area as shafts and fasteners for motors, pumps and valves in the food and process industries.

The name “martensitic” means that these steels can be thermally hardened. They have a ferritic microstructure if cooled very slowly, but a quenching heat treatment converts the structure to very hard martensite, the same as it would for a low alloy steel such as 4140. Neither the familiar austenitic grades (304, 316 etc) nor the duplex grades (2205 etc) can be hardened in this way.

Grade 431 (UNS 43100) is the most common and versatile of these martensitic stainless steels. It combines good strength and toughness with very useful corrosion resistance and in its usual supply condition can be readily machined.

Chemical Composition

The composition of 431 specified in ASTM A276 is given in Table 1 below.
Grade 431_Table 1

 

 

 

The inclusion of a small amount of nickel in grade 431 is different from most other martensitic grades. This small but important addition makes the steel microstructure austenitic at heat treatment temperatures, even with such a high (for a martensitic grade) chromium content. This high temperature austenite enables formation of hard martensite by quenching.

Corrosion Resistance

The relatively high chromium content gives grade 431 pitting, crevice and general corrosion resistance approaching that of grade 304, which is very useful in a wide range of environments including fresh water and many foods.

Grade 431 has the highest corrosion resistance of any of the martensitic grades. Corrosion resistance is best with a smooth surface finish in the hardened and tempered condition.

Grade 431 is sometimes used for boat shafting and works well in fresh water but is usually not adequate for sea water.

Heat Resistance

Grade 431 has good scaling resistance to about 700°C but, as martensitic steels are hardened by thermal treatment, any exposure at a temperature above their tempering temperature will permanently soften them. 600°C is a common limit.

Mechanical Properties

The application of grade 431 is all about strength and hardness. Table 2 below lists mechanical properties of the grade annealed and in hardened and tempered “Condition T”.

Grade 431_Table 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heat Treatment

A feature of grade 431 is that it can, like other martensitic steels, be hardened and then tempered at various temperatures to generate properties within a wide spectrum, depending on whether the requirement is for highest possible hardness, or best ductility, or some balance between these. Hardening is by air or oil quenching, usually from 950-1000°C.

The tempering diagram in Figure 1 shows properties typically achieved when the hardened steel is tempered at the indicated temperature. A tempering temperature within the range 580 – 680°C is usual. Tempering between 370 and 570°C should be avoided because of resulting low impact toughness.

Tempering should follow quenching as quickly as possible to avoid cracking. Softening is usually by sub-critical annealing, by heating to 620 – 660°C and then air cooling.

Grade 431_Figure 1

Physical Properties

Density

7700kg/m3

Elastic Modulus

200GPa

Thermal Expansion (0-100°C)

10.2µm/m/°

Fabrication

Machining is readily carried out in the annealed condition, and also in the common Condition T. Modern machining equipment enables high speed machining at this hardness of about 30HRC.

Welding of 431 is rarely carried out — its high hardenability means that cracking is likely unless very careful pre-heat and post-weld heat treatments are carried out. If welding must be done this can be with 410 fillers to achieve high strength but austenitic 308L, 309L or 310 fillers give softer and more ductile welds.

Cold bending and forming of hardened 431 is very difficult because of the high strength and relatively low ductility.

Forms Available

Grade 431 is available in a wide range of bar sizes — virtually exclusively round but some hexagonal. Most other martensitic grades are only available in round bar, although the higher carbon 12% chromium “420” series of grades may also be available as hollow bar and as blocks and plates intended for tooling applications.

Alternatives

Another approach to high strength stainless steel bar is a precipitation hardening grade, such as 17-4PH. These grades have similar corrosion resistance and offer some advantages in producing long, straight, higher strength shafts.

Shafts to be used in more corrosive environments are likely to be a duplex or super duplex or nitrogen-strengthened austenitic grade. These, however, have lower achievable strengths than martensitic or precipitation hardening grades.

Specifications

Grade 431 is usually specified by ASTM A276, with composition as in Table 1. In the Australian market, however, there are usually two deviations from A276:

  1. It is most common to find this grade supplied in the hardened and tempered “Condition T” to AS 1444 or BS 970, with specified tensile strength of 850-1000MPa. Yield and elongation are typically in conformance with the limits listed above. ASTM A276 only lists a Condition A version of grade 431 — this is the annealed condition that would normally require hardening heat treatment after machining.

  2. The second deviation is that it is usual for cold finished stainless steel bars stocked in Australia to be with the all-minus ISO h9 or h10 diameter tolerances. Hot finished “black” bars with all-plus ISO k tolerances may also be available.

 

This article was prepared by ASSDA Technical Committee member Peter Moore from Atlas Steels. Further technical advice can be obtained via ASSDA’s technical inquiry line on +617 3220 0722.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 48, Autumn 2011.

Whole of life costing

19 years plus points to stainless

A fresh focus on whole-of-life costing at Gold Coast City Council has led to the specification of stainless steel for long-term structures in the foreshore zone.

The philosophy, which was adopted following the publication of a study by Griffith University and GCCC, is likely to have flow on effects to other councils and government bodies.

GCCC’s co-ordinator of technical governance Paul Conolly said the seed was planted in 1998 when Council’s Technical Services Branch specified stainless steel for a modular toilet structure in a foreshore zone park. The material was deemed at the time to be cost prohibitive on a capital expenditure basis but the process sparked an interest in lifecycle costing.

Mr Conolly said Council’s growing interest in lifecycle costing, combined with an expectation among locals and tourists that public facilities showcase a ‘resort style’ finish, had brought the focus back to stainless steel in recent years. “There has been a clear trend towards lighter, more open structures for public facilities and these lend themselves to steel work,” he said. “A lot of our public facilities are in the foreshore zone and some materials weren’t performing as well as we wanted, so we started to look at corrosion issues and how to best manage this. We started using stainless steel for critical elements, such as joint interfaces for concrete works; bolts, brackets and cleats for boardwalks; and for high use facilities such as rubbish bins.

“Our observations led us to believe that stainless was the way to go in the foreshore zone, but we had no tangible justification which the designers could use to validate the decision for our asset custodians. We needed clear evidence to prove the initial cost of stainless steel was justified over the life of the structures.”

Griffith University scholarship student Jordan Cocks was called on to research the topic in conjunction with industry affiliate GCCC as partial fulfilment of his Bachelor of Civil Engineering.
Mr Cocks investigated multiple structural scenarios from the perspective of what would represent the most cost-effective solution: hot dipped galvanized (HDG) steel, paint systems, duplex systems using both HDG and paint, or stainless steel.

The result was a report containing a design guide, a life cycle cost analysis and a life cycle costing spreadsheet for structures in the foreshore zone. The report indicates stainless steel is a viable option based on cost alone for structures with a design life greater than 19 years. Conversely, the study indicates a HDG coating would theoretically have a life span of 14 years, leaving the exposed steel subject to rapid corrosion unless protected by an increasingly costly maintenance regime.

Mr Conolly said the report had delivered a workable tool enabling designers to input various parameters, such as current prices and design life, producing a guide for selection of the appropriate material or finishes based around optimising whole-of-life costs.

Similar principles were used to shift the specification of a park arbour in Broadbeach towards stainless steel. The material was essential due to the warm, humid environment of the foreshore, regular spraying with water and fertiliser, and the fact that the arbour would have plants growing over it that would take many years to fully establish. The report has now been used to guide material selection for a number of projects, including toilet blocks in Jacobs Well, Miami (pictured) and Burleigh Heads.

“With these projects, we have gone to the asset custodians and our first question was – what is the design life?” Mr Conolly said. “The report has helped reinforce the need for a ‘cradle to grave’ approach to responsible and sustainable asset management encompassing all stakeholders. This includes not just the designer and asset custodian but all the operational and maintenance personnel involved with a structure.

“For stainless steel structures, the asset custodians now recognise that to retain an asset over the long-term and to satisfy the whole of life cost advantage there must be regular wash downs as part of the maintenance program. The higher initial construction costs are offset by the lower cost regular wash downs which form the major component in the new maintenance regimes. The buildings are also being designed to be hosed from ceiling to floor. The overall process has really helped improve the relationship between the asset custodians, designers and maintenance staff.”

Mr Conolly said the report had also been used to promote the use of stainless steel in playground equipment and shade sail structures. “It is just a matter of making that little leap towards recognising the whole-of-life cost and ensuring delivery of a durable product – it’s not rocket science, just common sense when you think about it.”

GCCC is also now favouring ASSDA Accredited Fabricators and looking to ASSDA to provide third party technical expertise or adjudication should conflicts arise relating to material performance. The ASSDA Accreditation Scheme requires fabricators to conform to stringent standards of competence, training and education and encourages a consistently high standard through industry self-regulation.

ASSDA Executive Director Richard Matheson said GCCC’s decision to favour ASSDA Accredited Fabricators and specify stainless steel in the foreshore zone was a welcome one. “I believe we will see this initiative mirrored by other councils and government bodies in the near future,” Mr Matheson said.

“There is no doubt that informed specification and quality fabrication by people who know and understand the material will offer long-term cost savings and extend the life of the product. This is why ASSDA places so much emphasis on education and technical expertise – Councils and other government bodies need to get it right the first time and ensure value for money for their constituents.”

Mr Conolly said for long term structures, stainless steel was becoming the default specification in the foreshore zone and the trend was even moving inland.

“We’re asking the question: what will look and perform best from cradle to grave? It’s making people think differently,” he said.

Download the the final report here (4.6MB) - Whole of Life Cost Comparison and Cost Benefit Analysis for Steel Structures Constructed in the Foreshore Zone.

GCCC close up GCCC close up 2
This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 48, Autumn 2011.

Outstanding Design and Specification

Sunshine coast stainless shines 18 months later

An impressive span of stainless steel balustrade at Bulcock Beach, Caloundra on Queensland’s Sunshine Coast is demonstrating that good design and specification achieves stunning results that last the distance.

The $8.5 million Sunshine Coast Council Bulcock Beach redevelopment, which was opened in late 2009, incorporates over 300m of grade 316 stainless steel balustrade.

PLACE Design Group’s project landscape architect and lead consultant Ben Stevens said the balustrade was a collaborative design effort between PLACE Design Group and ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Bell Stainless.

“We wanted a clean, simple design that didn’t detract from the magnificent sweeping views of Pumicestone Passage, and one that stood up to the front-line marine location,” Mr Stevens said. “We worked closely with Bell Stainless to refine the design. They had some great ideas to maximise long term performance of the stainless steel, while reining in expenditure.”

The final design included 100mm x 50mm rectangular hollow sections (RHS) for the main balustrade stanchions. Because RHS and circular hollow sections (CHS) were available pre-polished from ASSDA Sponsor Fagersta Steels, it meant that significant cost savings could be achieved in the fabrication and finishing stages. The use of standard RHS sections instead of plate and flatbar significantly minimised the inclusion of crevices in the detailing.

“Because we managed to achieve the required balustrade budget allowance and satisfy Council about the long-term durability of a stainless steel balustrade system we think an outstanding outcome has been achieved,” Mr Stevens said.

Bell Stainless managing director David Vine said this was a landmark project for the company in many ways. “We saw an opportunity to raise the bar for coastal commercial installations,” he said.

“After exploring the project’s specified finish, we developed a hand-polishing technique that worked extremely well. We’re really pleased with how it’s performing.”

Bulcock Beach, Caloundra

Images courtesy of Chelmstone. Photography by Greg Gardner Photography.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 48, Autumn 2011.

Weathering the Financial Storm

'Remaining Competitive and Profitable' by James Johnson, Millatec Pty Ltd

Now is the time as an owner of a small or medium enterprise to move back into the coalface and be involved in all facets of your business. As a business owner, no one spends less money, identifies opportunities to improve productivity more or reduces waste better than you.

In the current economic climate it seems especially pertinent to discuss tools that can help you remain competitive and achieve break-even or be profitable.

The four key areas are:

  1. Financials
  2. Human resources
  3. Marketing
  4. Systemisation

Controlling your finances

When it comes to managing your finances, structure is vital. It is imperative that you plan your cash flow on a week-to-week basis to ensure debts can be paid when due. Ensure tax liabilities are allowed for. If you can’t meet your payment dates, talk to your creditors or the ATO: most will work with you, but they will take action if you are not open and honest.

To effectively monitor spending and avoid unexpected cash flow shortfalls, your financial reporting needs to be up-to-date. An ideal target is end of month plus 10 working days. To ensure reporting and recording is useful, filing of all financial transactions – including accruals – is vital.

A network of support is fundamental to the sustainability of your business. It is important to establish and maintain an open and honest relationship with your bank – during times of profit and of loss. The bank will understand the long-term fluctuations of your business and will be your best source of information on current services that suit your needs. Remember, banks do not want to see you go out of business – they will help you stay afloat.

For example, they have developed a range of new products to help with cash flow.

The current economic climate is a great time to negotiate for better deals – from freight to materials – and it is an ideal time to negotiate new leases.

Human resources: maximising productivity

Employees are the bones of your company. Have high expectations of your staff and make them known. Just as important as setting a high standard of work is letting your staff do their job and being flexible enough to make them want to stay. At the same time it is advantageous to not have any staff member who you are afraid to lose: no one should be irreplaceable.

A large part of managing human resources is managing risk. Employee training is invested time and money. Maintaining low staff turnover means retention of knowledge within the company and makes thorough training a valuable investment.

Marketing: sending the right message

If you want to maintain and grow sales, first and foremost be a marketing company. Invest in marketing as you would a new machine: work out the investment and expected return and research what is right for your business.

It is a great time for change so try the things that you have been putting off during busy periods.

The key is remembering that sales must lead production, and production must support the promise. This is a constant battle: they both need – and work just as hard as- the other. This needs to be reinforced daily.

Systemisation

Linking systems together means you maintain control of the business. Report and record weekly, monthly and quarterly. This not only helps in tracking financial movements but also ensures that in the instance of staff absence, the system will remain functional.

Linking the following systems is a good place to start:

  • Quoting (capture all costs)
  • Processing orders (no job starts without a written PO)
  • Producing job cards
  • Purchase orders (nothing gets in without one)
  • Time capture (measure productivity)
  • Stock
  • Invoicing (nothing gets out without one)
  • Financial accounting

If you have had a crippling 12 months, it is not too late to recover and come out stronger, wiser and more profitable.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

New flexible learning

For stainless apprentices

At the beginning of 2008, ASSDA was successful in its application for funding from the Federal Government for a project focused on the integration of e-learning into industry. The funding has seen ASSDA create a Workforce Development Strategy and a Flexible Learning Delivery Pathway incorporating e-learning, with plans to develop an additional e-learning module titled Practical Skills of Surface Treatment to complement the existing Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Module.

The Workforce Development Strategy provides an industry-wide framework in which to address the workforce challenges for the stainless steel industry: skills shortages, staff retention, knowledge retention. This document assisted ASSDA in defining what the industry requires in training, skills development and the retention of employees.

The body of the project sees ASSDA working in conjunction with SkillsTech Australia and multiple industry partners to develop e-learning as a form of theory training for apprentices aiming to acquire their qualification in stainless steel fabrication.

ASSDA created a Flexible Learning Delivery Pathway that gives apprentices and employers the choice of conducting training both online and within the workplace. This form of training is beneficial to the apprentices as they are able to work at their own pace, in a location of their choice and in a nonthreatening learning environment. For the employer the pathway is economical as the apprentice can conduct their study in the workplace, therefore reducing time spent away from the workplace.

Using ASSDA’s Stainless Steel Specialist Course and existing resources within the TAFE system, SkillsTech Australia has developed an e-learning system based on the required competencies for a qualification in fabrication, with a particular focus on the unique requirements of working with stainless steel. These training modules offer learning through video, audio, text, images and interactives that are interesting to the apprentice whilst teaching them the underpinning knowledge they require to develop a skill.

In March 2009, 12 apprentices were inducted into the e-learning program for Stage 1a at SkillsTech. This stage is now complete and feedback from the apprentices has been extremely positive. Stage 1b has now commenced and will see the apprentices training solely within the workplace with a workplace mentor to oversee their theory training and instruct them in their practical experience.

This is an exciting development aimed at positioning e-learning as the training method of choice within the stainless steel industry and will help meet ASSDA’s goal of building a strong workforce with a focus on quality and innovation.

If you are interested in viewing the Workforce Development Strategy or learning more about the learning options becoming available for apprentices, call ASSDA on (07) 3220 0722.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

Stainless Screening

Combining Strength and Style

Melbourne based designer Pierre Le Roux began working with steel 15 years ago, more recently with stainless. “I love the high-tech, reflective quality of stainless,” he said.

Le Roux’s popular custom made wine rack design has attracted clients from both retail and domestic markets. Often doubling as a wallscreen, the unique rack is fabricated from grade 304, 3mm stainless steel sheet supplied by ASSDA member Dalsteel Metals. Each bottle holder was hand polished to achieve a personal finish.

Le Roux’s company produces custom made stainless pieces including sculpture, architectural and landscape features. Stainless domestic furniture and screening is becoming increasingly sought after and demand is largely surpassing supply. “The most common thing people say to me is that there’s just nothing out there, so they come for something unique,” Mr Le Roux said.

Creating one-off pieces to meet client specification means customer satisfaction and artistic flexibility. “This makes for a very rewarding profession,” said Le Roux.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

Tree of Knowledge

Aussie Icon Immortalised in Stainless

A 200-year-old Australian icon has been immortalised in a new stainless steel home. The ‘Tree of Knowledge’ is cherished as the birthplace of Australia’s labour movement. It is believed that shearers gathered under the tree in 1891, striking for workers’ rights.

The $6 million timber and stainless steel memorial was officially unveiled earlier this year in Barcaldine, Queensland to house the remains of the tree following its death in 2006. ASSDA Accredited fabricator St Clair Sheetmetal supplied and installed 6.5 tonnes of mirror finished stainless steel cladding to achieve a highly reflective surface and provide a durable and stunning monument.

“We clad all the trusses of the mirror finish stainless steel so it looks like a cathedral inside,” David St Clair said. “The panels make the light reflect down underneath and takes away the brown of the building,” he said. The heritage-listed site is now protected from the elements and the Tree of Knowledge has been given a new lease on life.

 


This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

Pop-up Stainless Space

New Potential for Mirror Finish

A multi-award winning building design is using stainless steel to reduce its visual impact. ‘Zoo Booth’ is a small free-standing kiosk at Victoria’s Healesville Sanctuary and – thanks to its mirror finished stainless cladding – is very well camouflaged! The design concept came from Melbourne company TS1 Pty Ltd, who launched Transportable Design 1 (TS1) Pop-up Buildings in 2006.

For the unique application at Healesville, ASSDA member Stainless Sections provided grade 304, 1.2 mm stainless steel sheet, polished to a No. 8 mirror finish to reflect the organic surroundings. Stainless
Sections’ Roy Carter said mirror finished stainless was the ideal material to achieve low visual impact in a natural setting whilst maintaining durability in an elemental location. TS1 is an expandable, relocatable space, completely construction-free and can be assembled in one day. It has become a popular solution to extending a living or work place, retail space or even for use as a spare bedroom.

TS1 Director Nadja Mott said her vision reflected a transient, nomadic lifestyle: her creations are transportable, low impact and fully recyclable. Mr Carter said the emerging market for reflective buildings has prompted further innovation to achieve solar reflection capture.

“This material allows concave shaping to be achieved which enhances marketing opportunities for mirror finished stainless in the growing green building market,” Mr Carter said.


This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

Vertical Landscaping

Ecologically Sustainable Stainless Design

With the population boom leaving less open space available for traditional garden beds, stainless steel is helping to reintroduce Mother Nature to an increasingly unnatural environment. Ecologically sustainable design (ESD) promotes the use of existing resources to maintain biological balance. This allows for natural light and ventilation, reduced energy usage, water consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The need for this type of specification is so apparent that the Government has established the Green Building Council of Australia (GBA) to advocate sustainable property development.

City of Melbourne was among the first to demonstrate ESD in Australia, with its own office building Council House No.2 (CH2). Green features such as natural lighting and temperature control earned CH2 the first GBA six-star Green Star Certified rating.

Among CH2’s green features is vertical landscaping created by ASSDA Member Ronstan Architectural. The specialist tensile contractors at Ronstan developed support systems for these gardens, fixing grade 316 stainless mesh and cables to the building’s exterior. Ronstan’s Rowan Murray said the benefits of green façades are now widely acknowledged. “Many new buildings include elements of active and passive solar design and have some sort of façade as a physical shade.

Using plants as a shade element is becoming increasingly popular and there are opportunities for the stainless steel industry to provide essential structure as a platform for plant growth,” he said. ‘Living walls’ can be more beneficial than conventional shading systems, both economically and environmentally. The plant’s ability to cool via evapotranspiration provides natural insulation, lowering the building’s running costs, while producing oxygen at the same time. “This in itself provides a direct social and psychological benefit to the building occupants, driving people to engage with the building,” Mr Murray said.

“People actually enjoy the close proximity to plant life and stainless steel plays a big part in making this possible,” he said. Mr Murray said design considerations are important when specifying for this type of application, particularly “dead weight” from suspended sheet and plant matte, wind and rain force, but careful design ensures an efficient lightweight stainless solution. Specifying ESD is also beneficial to your budget.

“We love to see stainless used in intelligent ways with façades and the good news is that despite the current climate we are gradually seeing developers begin to take a more responsible approach to the upfront cost of ESD,” Mr Murray said. A recent GBA report denotes the value in green features, such as stainless façades, claiming the study proved that “green buildings make occupants healthy, wealthy and wise”. GBA recently awarded its 100th green star to a sustainable interior design at Stockland Head Office in Sydney.


This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 46, Winter 2009.

Stainless protects old for young

Posted 2nd December 2009

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Historic remnants from the original Australian Hotel site in The Rocks will be preserved for future generations by stainless steel grillage platforms. ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Paige Stainless supplied and fitted the platforms for Auswave Products Pty Ltd as part of the site’s recent redevelopment.

The sandstone ruins, which date from the 1800s, are now on display within the recently completed Sydney Harbour Youth Hostel Australia (YHA), which was designed by Tzannes Architects and constructed by Built Pty Ltd.

Auswave Products Director Doug Matthews said creative thinking was required to provide a high quality access platform, matching steps and landings that would be totally accessible and easily maintained, blending the past and the present within a modern building project.

“This was achieved with the expert team at Paige Stainless and the outcome is a magnificent architectural solution,” Mr Matthews said.

Paige Stainless Director Kevin Finn said the ruins had previously been built over but, during the latest redevelopment, Sydney City Council felt it was important to save the heritage associated with the site.

Mr Finn said Paige Stainless supplied and fitted around 50 square metres of PAIGE STAINLESS HEELGUARD® flooring for the main entrance to the building, which lies about one metre above the cellar area of the original hotel.

Grade 304 stainless steel supplied by ASSDA Member Atlas Specialty Metals was used for the grillage due to its longevity in this inert environment, as well as its appearance.

“This was a very cool project to be involved in, not only because the new building is impressive in itself, but also because of the historic factors,” he said.

“Heelguard was used so that visitors could view the ruins through the grillage and also to enable natural light and ventilation to flow through to the ruins below.”

Mr Finn said safety was also an issue: the 5mm gaps between the grillage means that high heel shoes and toes can not get through and Australian Standards for slip resistance are exceeded.

The flooring is made of multiple panels that are fixed to a sub-frame designed by Paige Stainless. Each panel can be removed independently from the adjacent one if necessary, ensuring easy access if required.

ASSDA MEMBER CONTACTS
Paige Stainless
27 Cessna Drive
CABOOLTURE QLD 4510
Ph (07) 5499 1511
www.paigestainless.com.au

Atlas Specialty Metals
www.atlasmetals.com.au

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nature provides inspiration

Posted 14th December 2009

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Working with stainless could only be described as a labour of love for retired engineer and designer Allen Minogue. After a 25 year career with ASSDA Accredited Townsend Group, Mr Minogue continues to work with stainless steel, creating larger than life sculptures from the material. His latest creation, The Jumping Barramundi, has been a year in production, stands 1.125m high and weighs 75kg.

Mr Minogue said he had spent quite a bit of time in Darwin and the Kimberley, which has inspired much of his work, including the dancing brolgas featured in Australian Stainless. “I look for ideas in nature and I couldn’t resist the lure of this iconic NT fish,” Mr Minogue said.

The sculpture features an internal stainless steel frame with a fibreglass body. Over 2000 scales were cut from .55mm thick grade 316 stainless steel, which were hand polished and screwed to the fibreglass body. The head, tail and fins were cast from 316 stainless, sandblasted and polished.

Mr Minogue works exclusively with stainless steel, which he sources from ASSDA Member Dalsteel Metals Pty Ltd.

CONTACT

Dalsteel Metals Pty Ltd
www.dalsteel.com.au

Townsend Group
www.townsendgroup.com.au

Allen Minogue
Ph 02 9528 9877
Email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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stainless integral to design

Posted 17th December 2009

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A dam upgrade project in South Australia has achieved a world-first zero carbon footprint for water infrastructure and has used stainless steel as part of the unique design. The Little Para Dam upgrade incorporates a Hydroplus Fusegate System, with stainless steel fabrication carried out by ASSDA Accredited Fabricator LWA Engineering.

The Fusegates are similar to those built at Jindabyne for the Snowy Hydro in 2007, featuring a cast in-situ concrete design with stainless steel inlet wells and seal fixings in order to provide a 100 year design life and virtually no maintenance. However, for the Little Para dam upgrade, SA Water accepted the lean duplex stainless steel (LDX 2101) proposed by CivilTEC for the superstructure of the units for the following reasons:

  • it would provide similar corrosion resistance to 316 grade stainless steel, but with a higher tensile strength (450N/mm²) and at a much lower price;
  • an off-site fabrication system would reduce the amount of time required on site at Little Para from eight months to just six weeks, thereby reducing site administration overheads and running costs for all parties involved; and
  • the extremely efficient design (by WSP Group) used far less construction materials than would normally be required for a project of this nature and LDX 2101 is manufactured using approximately 65 per cent recycled material.

LWA Engineering Managing Director Larry Watson said LWA Engineering had been working with ASSDA Major Sponsor Sandvik on the stainless steel components of the project.

“With a Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme on the agenda, a zero carbon footprint has never been more important,” Mr Watson said.

“One of the main reasons SA Water wanted to use this design with this material came down to the reduction in carbon footprint which minimised the offset required to achieve zero emissions. This is the first zero carbon infrastructure project in the country.”

The walls of the Fusegate bucket are formed from a composite steel shell comprising two 4mm thick stainless steel ‘skin’ plates spaced 150mm apart. A lattice work of ribbing is then welded onto the plates.

Around 70 tonnes of LDX 2101 were supplied by Sandvik for the walls and internal ribbing of the five Fusegates. The material was imported in 4mm thick coil form, which was then cut to length at Sandvik’s Sydney premises, with ribs being cut in Melbourne (RCR Laser) and Adelaide. The wall panels were cut on Sandvik’s 2m-4m laser bed to within ±0.2mm of accuracy.

LWA Engineering marked out the 2m high inner and outer ‘skins’ to form the composite wall panels and spot welded the vertical and horizontal 40mm-4mm thick LDX ribs in position before pre-setting and stitch welding. When the two ‘skins’ were brought together they were fixed in position using a 12mm diameter stainless steel rod which is pushed through 13mm holes in the overlapping lugs and welded at the top and bottom rib location.

Each Fusegate wall was fixed to a pre-cast concrete base chamber using a continuously welded stainless steel base plate cast into the concrete during pre-casting. Prefabricated inlet wells comprising 8mm thick LDX plate continuously welded along splice points were bolted into place on site.

The composite wall design saved about 40 per cent of the stainless steel required when compared with a traditional single-plate design.

The Little Para Dam spillway upgrade will be completed in early 2010.

CONTACTS

LWA Engineering
www.lwaengineering.com.au

Sandvik Australia
www.sandvik.com

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Australian innovation

Posted 21st April 2010

 

The ridges on the KAG Rail enable Volunteer Marine Rescue crew to  secure a better grip.

Marine applications of stainless steel have traditionally relied on the material’s corrosion resistance and strength. But when it comes to marine rescue vessels, safety is also a top priority.

Southport’s Volunteer Marine Rescue (VMR) is currently trialling an Australian innovation designed to enhance safety.

The Klein Architectural Grip (KAG) Rail, developed by ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Klein Architectural (Slacks Creek, Queensland), has permanent swages and ridges that fit the shape of a closed hand.

The ‘non-slip’ rail was originally designed for the industrial marine sector, where rails and workers’ hands are often wet and greasy, causing slippage on ladders.

In addition to the VMR, the rail is now being trialled on steep ladders at Wivenhoe Dam, Queensland and is suitable for use in a range of industries requiring a high level of safety, including mining, construction, heavy industrial, manufacturing, transport, oil and gas, power stations, and the aged care sector.

VMR Unit Training Co-ordinator Ken Gibbs said two Grade 316 rails were currently installed on their 8 metre Noosa Cat ‘Marine Rescue 2’ and had been tested in all types of weather conditions.

“We’ve got about 30 skippers who work in rotation and the feedback we’re getting is really positive,” Mr Gibbs said.

“The general consensus is that the rail offers superior holding capacity in both wet and dry conditions, without compromising strength.”

Mr Gibbs said during search and rescue operations, the weather was generally foul with water often taken over the bow of the vessel, making the hand rails slippery and testing both skipper and crew.

“Being able to fit our fingers into the ridges gives us a better grip and makes the operation much safer,” he said.

Klein Architectural Director Danny Klein said independent testing had shown the rail reduces handrail slippage by 80 per cent in comparison with regular stainless steel tube.

“The rail can also be fabricated in both left and right hand configurations, which would allow visually impaired people to identify in advance what a staircase is about to do,” Mr Klein said.

The KAG Rail is made to order and is available in a number of different stainless steel grades, depending on the application. The rails can be retro fitted or installed on new projects. Services such as water, electrical, air/gas and data can be hidden in the tube.

A patent is currently pending on the product, which complies with AS1428.1. Mr Klein said the Standard does not currently make particular reference to grip or slip, but the company was lobbying for this to be changed.

CONTACTS

Klein Architectural Pty Ltd
www.klein.net.au

VMR for blog

Workshop

Close up

Stunning stainless

Strength and corrosion resistance vital

As wild fish stocks decline globally, the spotlight is increasingly being shone on humane stun and slaughter methods in the rapidly growing aquaculture industry. Stainless steel components fabricated by Pryde Fabrication (ASSDA Accredited) are an integral part of a Brisbane innovation that is leading the way internationally in a shift towards faster and more humane automated percussive stun methods.

Seafood Innovations International Group Pty Ltd has spent around 10 years developing fish harvest technology which enables fish to swim naturally until the second they are stunned, reducing stress on the fish and improving flesh quality.

They have collaborated extensively during this period with Pryde Fabrication (Cleveland, Queensland) to develop the system, which incorporates a base, ramp and trigger plate made from grade 316 stainless steel.

Up to 400 of the units are being produced each year, of which around 98 per cent are for export.

Pryde Fabrication General Manager Darren Newbegin said Grade 316 stainless steel was chosen for the components primarily due to its corrosion resistance and strength. He said other design and fabrication requirements included:

  • No bacterial traps
  • Robust enough to withstand the harsh environment and repetitive shock loading
  • Light enough to enable easy handling of the modules for cleaning
  • Configured to enable easy dismantling for cleaning

“We never considered any grade other than 316 because of the harsh environment – the majority of the units are exported overseas, where they are being used in minus temperatures, fully immersed in sea water,” he said.

There is about 15kg of stainless steel in each machine, which is laser cut, enabling a high level of accuracy for both cutting and fold marks. The rest of the procedure is performed manually, including welding, polishing and glass bead blasting to provide a pleasing surface appearance.

“Stainless steel is the perfect material to laser because it’s so clean to cut,” Mr Newbegin said.

Seafood Innovations’ Business Manager Noel Carruthers said the development of the system had benefited from choosing a fabricator in the company’s local area, as it enabled a close collaboration.

Mr Newbegin agreed with this sentiment, suggesting it was this relationship between the two companies which had contributed to making the product fit for purpose and tailored to cost and operational efficiency.

“This relationship has allowed Pryde Fabrication to be involved in a solution to world fish farming and we are excited about further growth in this Australian initiative,” he said.

Mr Carruthers said the patented system represented an enormous change to the industry, with a single unit processing 15-20 fish per minute automatically, compared with other processes such as electrocution, carbon dioxide gas, and the use of wooden clubs.

The system works by pumping a current of water, which the fish are naturally inclined to swim towards. They then reach a point where their nose hits a trigger, which releases and immediately retracts a small, blunt-nosed piston at high speed, making the fish irreversibly unconscious. The fish are then turned upside down and enter a bleed machine where they are automatically bled.

In addition to improved flesh quality, the automated system means fewer operator injuries and immediate bleeding, resulting in improved appearance of fillets when fish are processed. The ability to slaughter at the point of capture means fish potentially carrying diseases will not contaminate other waters in transit.

Although originally developed for Atlantic salmon, the system has also been refined to cater for different varieties of fish, including tilapia, pangasius, barramundi, yellowtail kingfish and cobia.

A recent installation on a Marine Harvest vessel in Norway (incorporating three sets of a four channel system) is slaughtering 20,000 fish an hour at 98% efficiency.

The equipment has been independently tested by laboratories in Norway and ongoing developments to the system are tested at Huon Aquaculture in Tasmania.

 

The article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 47 - Spring 2010.