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Wynyard Walk: Where Beauty Meets Function

New infrastructure in the heart of Sydney is set to transform the busy transport hub and provide a stylish new gateway to the Barangaroo development.

21 June 2017

A growing population in Australia's most populous city calls for innovative design, so when the NSW State Government commissioned construction of the Wynyard Walk, ASSDA Sponsor and Accredited Fabricator Stoddart stepped up to the challenge.

The Wynyard Walk forms one of several solutions to break congestion in the Sydney CBD, allowing pedestrians to move from the Wynyard transport hub to the new development at Barangaroo waterfront in six minutes, avoiding steep hills, busy intersections and inclement weather events.

With an estimated 75,000 commuters using the busy hub every day, traffic flow is expected to increase to 110,000 over the next seven years in what is traditionally Sydney's third busiest station.

The tunnel will become the main arterial connection between Barangaroo and the city's transport network and provides vital infrastructure into the future.

THE PROJECT

Alongside CPB Contractors, Stoddart incorporated over 1,600m2 of perforated and solid stainless steel sheeting fabricated into ceiling and fascia pannelling installed in the Clarence Street entrance facade and the tunnel lining. The new Clarance Street entry point is a multi-level portal descending to Wynyard Station via escalators and elevators.

ASSDA Sponsor Austral Wright Metals supplied the project with over 50 tonnes of 445M2 grade stainless steel sheet.

A major consideration for the design team was to ensure aesthetic value for commuters and visitors alike.

THE DESIGN

Inspired by nature and Sydney region geology, the design concept for Wynyard Station focused on flow, with all materials selected to create a sense of motion as part of a unified architectural expression.

The intricate patterns were all designed and executed within Stoddart's factory in Karawatha, Brisbane. The design work was completed wholly on CAD and Solidworks to ensure each panel fitted exactly into the patter and alongside adjacent panels. The Brisbane facility completed all aspects on the manufacture.

The external facade from Clarence Street to Wynyard Station was completed using perforated metal panels on the new access area via escalators and elevators down to the station several levels below.

The internal fitout, including the ceilings, walls and bulkheads, were all constructed from perforated stainless steel as well as solid stainless steel panels.

The complicated ceiling pattern proved challenging, but not insurmountable, resulting in a beautiful floating effect beckoning commuters along.

The project signalled the completion of Stage One of a $160 million upgrade to Wynyard Station.

 THE OUTCOME

The Kent Street level incorporates an extraordinary twenty-metre digital media screen which showcases flowing images of time, travel and places from all over Sydney throughout history, providing commuters with a far more entertaining commute than traditional toilet-block-tiled underground tunnels.

For tens of thousands of commuters who daily traverse the tunnel, Wynyard Walk is a time and energy saving alternative to the street level traffic roulette they once faced.

The added bonus is the stunning, aesthetically pleasing surrounds, the shiny panels and beautiful architecture, all of which was made possible by the use of stainless steel.

This article is featured in Australian Stainless Magazine Issue 59 (Winter 2017).

Local stainless companies get a piece of the mining action

ASSDA member Australian Pickling & Passivation Service (APAPS) and ASSDA sponsor Sandvik Mining & Construction have been central to the expansion of a coal export port in North Queensland.

With Queensland coal exports forecast to increase to 250mtpa by 2015, the strength and durability of the state’s expanding coal transport infrastructure and rail systems is critical to ensuring export capacity.

This recent expansion required the manufacture of 300 three-piece conveyor frames using 40 tonnes of 316 grade stainless steel, specified to foil the port’s exposure to wind, rain, salt spray and abrasive dust.

Sandvik Mining & Construction manufactured the conveyor frames for the project, and APAPS pickled the frames before delivery to the terminal.

Stainless steel can corrode in service if there is contamination of the surface. Pickling involves the removal by chemical means of any high-temperature scale and any adjacent low chromium layer of metal from the surface of stainless steel.

The client requested that the stainless steel conveyor frames were pickled to achieve a product that would not rust. According to APAPS’s Director Richard Raper, ‘Pickling stainless steel removes all traces of burnt chromium caused by heat from welding and any iron contamination caused by handling and processing during fabrication.’ He added that several variables must be considered when pickling stainless steel, including the grade, surface finish, the size and shape of the structure and bath temperature.

Transported by road on B-double trucks from Mackay to the APAPS workshop in Newcastle, the conveyor frames arrived a dull grey colour and heavily soiled from anti-spatter and other contaminants. Pre-cleaning of the stainless steel was required prior to pickling as contamination on the surface can reduce the effect of pickling. The frames were sprayed using an Avesta 401 Cleaner and Callington Haven Brite Wash and left for 30 minutes before being high-pressure washed with hot water.

The immersion pickling method was used to pickle the conveyor frames. They were immersed in a nitric and hydrofluoric acid bath for approximately 1.5 hours, which APAPS’s own pickling technician determined following a number of inspections. Avesta Pickling Bath 302 was used at a temperature between 25-30°C. The frames were lifted from the bath and allowed to drain for 15 minutes before being washed down using high-pressure water.

APAPS’s pickling of the stainless steel by was central to ensuring the performance and durability of the conveyor frames and maximising their corrosion resistance. The treatment also produced a consistent and smooth finish with aesthetic appeal.

After the pickling treatment, the conveyor frames were strapped together in batches of five, with timber placed between the stainless steel and strapping. They were then transferred and loaded using a forklift with stainless steel slippers [covers] to protect the frames from cross-contamination. Due to the physical nature of the conveyor frames, only one layer of frames at a time could be placed on the truck deck, and these were tied down with web straps. Transportation took an average of 3 days between Newcastle and Mackay.

The project was completed in 10 weeks and delivered back to Mackay in stages. The APAPS team worked two shifts a day to complete the work on time for Sandvik.

Richard Raper says the project was a testament to APAPS’s membership of ASSDA, as it was the Association’s referral that won him the job.

‘This is a good showcase of how ASSDA members and Accredited fabricators can achieve great outcomes and how clients get what they expect when specifying stainless steel.’

Images courtesy of Australian Pickling & Passivation Service Pty Ltd.
This article is featured in Australian Stainless magazine issue 53, Autumn 2013.

Stainless a winner for roof cladding

Kuala Lumpur's new international airport terminal will open within a month and travellers will be sheltered by a A$17 million stainless steel roof which has largely been developed by Australian expertise and innovation.

KL airportThe roof profile of the contact piers and air bridges (60,000m2 total area) had to satisfy a number of criteria, including rainwater runoff, resistance to wind uplift, and a smooth, painted appearance. The roof area comprises a composite system with an outer metal membrane of fully-welded stainless steel. Further complicating the design, the architect (MJAC) wanted to avoid valley gutters on the roof's curves.

Around 280 tonnes of 0.4mm grade 316 stainless were used for the roof and unique, tapered sheet, roll forming technology was developed to accommodate curvatures in the roof. While rollforming is normally used on parallel edge products, Chadwick Technology (Forestville, NSW) and Horton Engineering (New Zealand) developed a rollformer which was capable of rolling roof sheet in excess of 20 metres long, with the edges tapering to a pre-determined dimension. All of the taper, shear and rollforming equipment was computer controlled to obtain correct dimensions.

Similarly, a fully automated welding system was designed to weld at 5 metres/minute (resulting in a total of 125km of welding), with the generated heat being water cooled. Fixing clips, which were welded within the seam roof, had to allow for thermal movement of up to 20mm. To provide the unwelded surface appearance, a rib cap was designed to conceal all the welds, fixings and unpainted sections.

Bill Mansell, Chadwick's Engineering Director, said MJAC specified stainless steel to provide the client with a lifetime investment in maintenance free roofing. The stainless steel sheet, which was coil coated with a dark green fluorocarbon PVf2, was supplied by Avesta Sheffield (Castle Hill, NSW) and special end fascia and architectural trims were fabricated by the Townsend Group (Mortdale, NSW).

The airport is opening in February/March this year and it will be fully operational for the Commonwealth Games in September 1998. The roof, which is a finalist in the Gold Circle Award for Innovative Roofing from the USA's National Roofing Contractors Association, is certain to give international visitors to Kuala Lumpur a strong, visual impression of Australia's design and fabrication capabilities.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 11 - March 1998.

Queensland Rail Wins International Stainless Award

Queensland Rail has achieved international recognition for its use of stainless steel in coal wagons by winning the ferritic stainless steel category in the Stainless Steel Awards in South Africa recently.

Entrants were judged on criteria including usage, application, substitution, growth, fitness for purpose, cost saving and effectiveness of solutions.

The award recognised Queensland Rail's use of weldable UNS S41 003 stainless steel as the preferred material for coal wagons. These wagons have performed successfully for 10 years.

According to Queensland Rail, the stainless has proven to be long lasting and low maintenance in comparison to aluminium and carbon steel wagons which were previously used. They intend to replace 55% of their fleet (3079 wagons) with stainless wagons by 2001.

The main advantage of using stainless steel over other materials is its resistance to corrosion.

All coal in Queensland is washed at the mine and transported wet. Wagons made out of materials susceptible to corrosion deteriorate very quickly under these conditions. For example, carbon steel wagons need to be coated with hot zinc every 1 0 years to protect against corrosion. Because this is not necessary with stainless, dramatic lifecycle cost savings can be achieved. Additional cost savings are made with stainless because improved design has resulted in reduced tare mass which reduces the number of wagons needed to carry the same amount of coal. This leads to lower operating costs per tonne of coal hauled and less demand on the infrastructure as fewer trains are running.

Until recently the application of stainless to coal wagons had been disregarded due to perceived high cost. However with the development of low cost, weldable ferritic grades of stainless, its use for coal wagons was reassessed and found to be effective.

The durability of stainless steel had previously been recognised in the railway industry in passenger trains (grade 301) and wagons carrying water to isolated regions (small amount of grade 304).

Stainless steel is now being considered for other freight wagons, with small numbers of wagons that haul aggressive material concentrates being built in grade 316.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 13, May 1999.

Stainless Enclosures Built to Last

Australian-made weighing technology is the first choice for global giant Caterpillar Inc., the world's leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment.

Local firm Transcale, designers and manufacturers of electronic weighing equipment specifically for the mining and transport industries, exports its equipment worldwide to over 11 countries in North and South America, Southern Africa and South East Asia.

Transcale's focus on the mining sector means that cutting edge technology needs to be protected from some of the harshest environments in the world. Extremes of heat and clod, record rainfalls, drought, high salt or other corrosive minerals are just a few of the considerations in the design process. Transcale's equipment is housed in stainless steel enclosures.

Over the last six years Transcale has used both 'off the shelf' boxes from companies such as ASSDA member B & R Enclosures, and custom-built stainless steel enclosures. One of the custom-built enclosures manufactured by MT Sheet Metal in Archerfield, Brisbane uses a 316 N4 brush finish stainless steel supplied to MT by ASSDA member Atlas Steels. B & R Enclosures also manufactures its high performance enclosures using grade 316 stainless with an N4 finish and fully welded body to withstand corrosive atmospheric conditions.

Both Transcale and its customers report that they are impressed with the long-term performance of these enclosures. According to Transcale, investing just a few extra dollars up front by choosing stainless for their enclosures produces tangible rewards by way of repeat business and an enhanced reputation.

For example, one of Transcale's major clients, US-based Caterpillar Inc., recently stated its intention to use Transcale truck scales exclusively for all replacement systems in its mining departments globally. Caterpillar's considerations for choice of product were quality and reliability along with appearance and after sales support.

In Australia, a major interstate line haul company has just taken delivery of a third Transcale dynamic axle weighing system, giving it a unit in Melbourne, Sydney and now Brisbane. In Brisbane the system has been installed at the Port of Brisbane facility, where salt air was one of the considerations. This system is protected from the elements by an MT Sheet Metal enclosure.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 23, December 2002.

Reducing risk with stainless flameproof technology

Where flammable or combustible materials are stored or handled, there can be a severe risk of an explosion or fire if handling equipment such as forklift trucks are not flameproofed.

A Combilift with stainless steel exhaust conditioner from Chess FlameproofFlameproofing of material handling equipment is the science of reducing the risk of an explosion or fire by means of specialised principles and technologies.

Three components are needed in order to generate an explosion or fire.

  1. A flammable or combustible material eg. liquid, gas or dust.
  2. Oxygen eg. air.
  3. Ignition source eg. electrical sparks,  mechanical sparks, hot surface and static discharges.

Sources of ignition include flames and sparks from exhaust systems, arc and sparks from electrical equipment, hot surfaces and static build up.

Chess Flameproof, a division of ASSDA member Chess Engineering Pty Ltd, specialises in the conversion of materials handling equipment for use in hazardous areas.

Materials handling equipment such as forklift trucks, tow tractors, sweepers, scissor lifts and boom lifts ranging from 1 ton to 32 tonnes have all been designed and manufactured to remove or reduce the risk of the equipment becoming the source of ignition. Both diesel and battery electric powered forklifts can be flameproofed. Note spark ignition engines ie. LPG and petrol are not permitted in any hazardous areas.

Left to right: A stainless steel flame arrestor, a corrugated stainless steel exhaust flex, a stainless steel final flame trap element and a stainless steel flame arrestor. In addition to flameproofing, Chess Engineering manufactures custom forklift attachments, engine protection systems, speed sensors/controllers and cabins as well as custom modifications and general forklift engineering.

To overcome the possible sources of ignition, a number of protection techniques are used:

Stainless steel water cooled exhaust manifold

Extreme temperatures of the gases leaving the cylinder head of the engine can easily cause the exhaust manifold to climb in temperature to a level where it may possibly ignite surrounding hazardous area atmosphere. To overcome this problem a stainless steel water cooled exhaust manifold is fitted.

Stainless steel exhaust conditioner

An exhaust conditioner is a water tank that channels the hot exhaust gases and particles through a labyrinth thus cooling and filtering.

Depending upon the area classification, a final flame trap element may be fitted as a secondary measure. Inside the exhaust conditioner is a very corrosive environment because of the exhaust gases, water and elevated temperatures.

Toyota forklift built to Zone 1 hazardous areas For standard conditions, grade 316 stainless steel has proved to be more than adequate for this application and withstands the harsh environment providing welding and post welding procedures are correctly followed. Alternatively for extremely corrosive conditions, a duplex stainless steel has been used.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 32, Winter 2005.

Images:

Main image - Stainless steel flame arrestor or flame trap used on the engine inlet to cool and quench flames that may arise from combustion malfunction.

Top right - A Combilift with stainless steel exhaust conditioner.

Above - A stainless steel final flame trap element (centre) and (left) a corrugated stainless steel exhaust flex with braided sleeve used to absorb engine movement and vibration.

Right - Toyota forklift built to Zone 1 hazardous area.

Showcasing motorcycle champions with stainless

The Ducati Sydney Racing Team have many reasons to be proud after Twin Cylinder motorcycle rider, Craig McMartin, won the 2004 Australian Pro-Twins Championship.

McMartin, who also won the championship in 2001 and 2002, rode his Ducati Sydney 999S to his third victory at the final round held in September 2004 at Phillip Island, Victoria.

The success of McMartin and fellow Ducati riders in the Championship also contributed to the Ducati team winning the fourth successive Manufacturers Championship.

Every Championship win gives Ducati the edge over other motorcycle manufacturers as they compete for the attention of enthusiasts seeking to purchase their next motorcycle.

To showcase the achievements of Craig McMartin and the Ducati Sydney Racing Team, team sponsor and ASSDA member, Interspace Manufacturing, designed a range of displays.

In addition to custom designed large banners and free standing corporate signage, the Ducati displays included merchandising stands and motorcycle platforms.

The Sydney-based company designs, develops, prototypes, tests, manufactures and supplies all types of architectural products where quality and design is important.

Design products include everything from smart fixing systems, furniture, storage, display, balustrading, glass patch fittings and feature walls, to larger building projects with stainless steel wire mesh for ceilings and interior and exterior walls.

This article was featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 32, Winter 2005.

Train travel in stainless style

Benefits in the areas of cost, appearance and durability were the key factors in the NSW State Rail Authority's decision to specify stainless steel for the construction of a fleet of new passenger trains to be delivered over the next five years.

United Goninan, a leading designer and manufacturer of railway rolling stock based in Newcastle, has been chosen to design and manufacture 161 double deck electric multiple unit (EMU) passenger cars over three stages.

Stage 1, to be completed in 2006, comprises 41 cars, with 80 to be delivered the following year and a further 40 cars the year after. The total value of the contract comes to $450 million.

The new rail car builds on the knowledge United Goninan has amassed using stainless steel in over 800 cars to date. It combines the maintenance advantages and modern styling of its previous flagship model, Tangara, with new crashworthiness requirements.

Tangara has been acknowledged as a worldclass doubledeck electric multiple unit. When it was designed for the same client in the mid-80s, the 450 car contract was the largest ever let in Australia for rolling stock. The minimal maintenance requirements experienced during the service life of these vehicles have been due to durability of stainless steel.

The new cars will be deployed in Sydney and on outer suburban routes in Wyong and Penrith. They will be built according to new crashworthiness requirements which involve specialised construction techniques with stainless steel to create 'crumple zones' to maximise safety in the event of a head-on collision.

Each car body structure will utilise over 11 tonnes of grade 301LT/ST/MT stainless steel sheet, in thicknesses varying between 0.8 and 5mm depending on the component, with 2B and DULL surface finishes. Together the three stages will consume 1800 tonnes of stainless steel worth around $10 million.

The new car's design is sleek and modern. To this end, United Goninan has developed a patented system for spot welding to give the exposed sheeting superior aesthetic appearance.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 24, March 2003.

Stainless vision at Epping - Chatswood rail tunnel

The construction of the Epping to Chatswood rail line in Sydney is the largest publicly funded infrastructure project underway in New South Wales. The project, managed by the Transport Infrastructure Development Corporation, will increase the capacity of the CityRail network and provide direct rail access for the first time to the growing North Ryde/Macquarie Park area. Due to be completed in 2008, the 12.5 kilometre underground passenger line will include four new underground stations at Epping, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park and North Ryde.

Following a tender process, Contractors AW Edwards appointed ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Townsend Group to design, engineer, manufacture and install, for all four stations, a cavern lining/ceiling system, louvre and glass smoke baffles - forming part of the ventilation system. Additionally, they designed, manufactured and installed vitreous enamel panels to public areas, general composite panel cladding to services buildings, 316 stainless steel cladding for lifts and escalators and 304 patterned stainless steel for ceiling features, station facilities cladding, services risers and column cladding.

For the cladding components, Townsend purpose designed and engineered all fixings in 316 stainless steel to meet the high performance requirements of the project. The system also incorporated 304 patterned stainless steel wall and ceiling panels for which Townsend developed a fabrication technique which optimised both the aesthetics and strength of the panel. Overall, the project used some 160 tonnes of stainless steel.

Townsend Group had up to 100 people working on the project at the one time, spread across the 4 rail stations and at their warehouse and manufacturing facility in Sydney. They began their involvement in the project in September 2005, and are expected to complete the contract by April 2007.

This article appeared in Australian Stainess Issue 39 - Autumn 2007.

Photographs by Josh Hill Photography.

Stainless upgrade on track for rail stations

When ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Bridgeman Stainless won a tender to supply stainless steel balustrades for Queensland Rail, supplying quality materials with excellent fabrication techniques was at the forefront of their mind.

The upgrade of Oxford Park and Grovely rail stations in Brisbane’s North West was a 12-month project, headed by Arup and Moggill Constructions, and included significant use of stainless steel for the hand rails and balustrades.

Director Len Webb says the job was an excellent opportunity to showcase stainless steel at its best, rather than reverting to cheaper, less reliable materials and fabrication techniques.

“The project manager, Allan Bolt, and I had a number of meetings with Arup and Moggill to discuss how best to use stainless steel to its advantage,” he says.

Bridgeman Stainless supplied a prototype of the balustrades before any work began, to ensure issues such as tea-staining were addressed.

“By doing ASSDA’s Stainless Steel Specialist Course, we were able to confidently discuss the importance of using certain finishes to help prevent issues such as tea-staining,” Len said.

The project used 54 square metres of plate, and almost 5400 metres of 1.6mm tube in diameters of 50.0mm, 38.1mm and 15.88mm. All stainless steel supplied by Bridgeman was in grade 304 and was polished to a #600 grit.  The tube materials were supplied by Tubesales in Yatala, Queensland and the plate was supplied by Atlas Specialty Metals in Wacol.  The plate was polished by an external contractor.

The balustrades were largely made offsite but then transported to the stations where they were welded together.  The joints were then passivated, re-polished back to the #600 finish and then, finally, cleaned.

A maintenance prevention schedule will be delivered on completion of the job, paying particular attention to those areas where the stainless steel is undercover and not regularly cleaned by rain.

Bridgeman Stainless Project Manager Allan Bolt says the company’s commitment to ongoing education about stainless steel and their dedication to quality workmanship had secured their reputation in the industry.

trainstation

Moggill Constructions Senior Project Manager Marc Kuypers says the emphasis Bridgeman Stainless took on quality showed in their results.
“We hadn’t worked with Bridgeman Stainless before and we are quite impressed with their work,” Marc says.

Arup Superintendent Representative John Rutherfoord said he was particularly impressed by the quality of the work Bridgeman carried out on site.

John, Marc, Len and Allan agreed that the success of the project was due largely to the excellent communication between all parties involved.

Len said, as one of the first ASSDA Accredited Fabricators, Bridgeman Stainless thoroughly endorses the ASSDA Accredition program as it distinguishes fabricators with quality practices within the industry.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 42 - Summer 2008


Posted 1 July 2003

Vessel pictured is typical of those that use this type of fire damper.

A fire at sea is a traveller's worst nightmare. To guard against such a disaster there exist stringent safety standards, maintained through a process of testing and certification. The pre-eminent authority is Lloyd's Register of Shipping, an organization founded in 1760 to inform underwriters and merchants about the condition of the ships they insured and chartered.

Today, certification by Lloyd's Register is a significant commercial achievement. Earlier this year, Lloyd's issued a 'Certificate of Fire Approval' to a new stainless steel fire damper for use on merchant and passenger ships. Grade 316L stainless steel was used in the dampers because of its dual resistance to high temperatures and corrosion in a demanding marine environment.

In tests conducted by the Warrington Fire Research Group at CSIRO's North Ryde facility, the single-blade and multi-blade units made by ASSDA member Unique Metal Works were subjected to 900+¡C temperatures for an hour. They successfully prevented fire spreading across a nominal Class A-60 deck, in compliance with Lloyd's Register Rules and Regulations and the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea.

The dampers were developed and fabricated by the Perth company, which utilises stainless steel to produce a variety of safety and environmental control equipment and other products. They are installed to isolate fire zones on a ship, for instance, where ventilation or air conditioning ducts pass from one zone to another. The controls can be electric or pneumatic depending on the ship's system. The blades are designed to remain open while the pneumatic power to the control actuators is maintained and to close down when there is a disruption to the supply. Under test conditions, this took 4 seconds for the 150mm x 150mm single-blade damper and 35 seconds for the 900mm x 900mm multi-blade type, well below the 90 seconds allowed.

UMW's certification is an example of Australian innovation being recognized internationally for high standards of materials, workmanship and construction.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 25, July 2003.

Photo courtesy of Austal Ships Pty Ltd. Vessel pictured is typical of those that use this type of fire damper.

Stainless integral to bridge's 300 year design life

Queensland’s largest ever road and bridge project will rely, in part, on innovation within the stainless steel industry to meet its design life of 300 years.

The Gateway Upgrade Project in Brisbane, which includes construction of a second Gateway Bridge and is being delivered by Queensland Motorways with design, construction and maintenance by the Leighton Abigroup Joint Venture (LAJV), will use reinforcement bar made for the first time from Outokumpu Group’s LDX 2101® duplex stainless steel.

A total of 130 tonnes of duplex stainless steel will be used in the bridge’s most critical structures: the splash zones of the two main river piers (28 tonnes of LDX 2101® have already been supplied and some Duplex 2205 will be used due to availability of dimensions for certain components).

Gateway Bridge Alliance Manager Gerry van der Wal said LDX2101® was chosen due to its high level of corrosion resistance (close to 316L) and low nickel content, which made it more cost effective and less susceptible to rapidly escalating worldwide nickel prices.

Outokumpu’s Qld and NT Manager Ken Hayes said that in bridge construction, stainless steel should be specified for parts where it makes a positive contribution, such as splash zones and the bridge deck.bridgepillar

“If carbon steel rebar is used, the bridge deck needs a water-proof membrane and the concrete must be of high quality, whereas if stainless rebar is used, reduced concrete cover can be specified, and it is also possible to relax the design criteria with respect to maximum crack width,” he said.

“As a result, with stainless rebar, bridges can be built either with no extra cost or for a lower cost than by using carbon steel reinforcement.”

Mr Hayes said LDX2101® offered the most cost-effective alternative for durable reinforced concrete structures and, due to its good price stability, it offered construction projects vitally important predictability.

“The win-win outcome from the use of LDX2101® is much improved sustainability in our constructed environment,” he said.

Because LDX2101® had never been used for rebar before this project, Outokumpu’s metallurgists carried out extensive tests to ensure it would withstand a high corrosion environment if the concrete were permeated by seawater.

A trial rebar coil was also sent to Atlas Specialty Metals’ Durinox facility in Melbourne to ensure it could be easily straightened.

Durinox Manager Colin McGill said they had to decoil the material, cut it to length and bend it to the appropriate shape.

“This was the first time we had processed the material and there were some challenges we had to overcome because of its very high strength,” Mr McGill said.

Once Outokumpu’s quality system and external testing criteria were approved by LAJV, the initial 28 tonnes of the hot rolled, ribbed, 16mm LDX2101® were delivered to Atlas Specialty Metals in Melbourne in 750kg coils for processing between October and December 2007.

The $1.88 billion Gateway Upgrade Project will be completed in 2011. It includes duplication of the original Gateway Bridge (which was completed in 1986), upgrade to 12km of the Gateway Motorway and construction of a new 7km deviation providing better access to Brisbane Airport.

Just over 20 years after it was constructed, the original Gateway Bridge is now exceeding capacity, carrying more than 100,000 vehicles each day.

When the duplication project is complete, the original bridge will carry six lanes of traffic north and the new bridge will carry six lanes of traffic south.

The new bridge is a 1.6km long balanced cantilever motorway bridge with the main span measuring 260 metres.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 42 - Summer 2008.

Photos courtesy of Leighton Abigroup Joint Venture.

Stainless frameless tankers make big Australian debut

McColl's Transport carts a variety of chemicals such as caustic soda and formaldehyde. The tanker barrel has been wrapped and not rolled, with full length stainless steel sheets used to eliminated circumferential welds. There’s a new breed of tanker being put through its paces along Australia’s east coast carrying aggressive chemicals and class three petroleum products for McColl’s Transport.

 

Dandenong based tanker manufacturer, Marshall Lethlean, has constructed FACT, a Frameless Aggressive Chemical Tanker with some unique operating attributes.

Marshall Lethlean constructed the 25,800 litre, 11.5m long stainless steel tanker with a chassis that’s up to 300 kilos lighter than conventional full frame designs.

Carting a variety of chemicals for McColls, such as caustic soda, formaldehyde and methanol, the barrel has been wrapped and not rolled, using full length stainless sheets to eliminate circumferential welds, a feature unique to Marshall Lethlean stainless steel tankers.

ASSDA Major Sponsor, Atlas Specialty Metals, supplied grade 316 stainless steel sheet to Marshall Lethlean for the fabrication of what is believed to be the industry’s first frameless chemical tanker.

Finally, to give the tanker a bright, durable corrosion resistant finish, the coaming, chassis rails and tank rings were all electropolished by ASSDA member, MME Surface Finishing.

Orlando Iluffi, Marshall Lethlean’s Business Development Manager, says the FACT product was one of many new developments which will be released onto the market to better improve running costs and operating safety.

“We have worked on this new tanker in partnership with McColl’s for nearly two years just to get it right.

“Along the way, we have been able to improve our engineering skills to the point that it has led us toward other new concepts which we are all equally excited about.”

In June 2005, the Frameless Aggressive Chemical Tanker prototype began a six month trial period to test for ‘accelerated durability’.

After three and half months of the trial, McColl’s Workshop Manager, Rob Harrison said the company intends to “buy the tanker after the period” has completed in late December 2005.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 33, Spring 2005.

Stainless by the bus load

Newcastle's public transport stocks are to be boosted by the addition of 30 new stainless steel buses, the first of which was delivered this month.

Their advanced design combines passenger comfort with environmental awareness. The Volvo B12BLE bus chassis meets the latest Euro III exhaust emission standards, making it the cleanest diesel bus on Australian roads.The buses are being built by Custom Coaches, the largest Australian bus manufacturer with plants in New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland.

The buses are being built by Custom Coaches, the largest Australian bus manufacturer with plants in New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland. Stainless steel supply is by ASSDA member Fagersta Steels.

The buses have features to make travel easier for visually impaired passengers and those with restricted mobility. They include air-conditioning, anti-lock brakes and graffiti-resistant seats.

In commissioning the buses, the State Transit Authority of NSW emphasized economical operating and maintenance costs, fuel efficiency and competitive whole of life costs. International experience shows stainless steel delivers on these criteria thanks to its corrosion resistance, durability and weight-saving qualities.

The outlook for stainless in bus construction is positive, as more Australian bus owners and operators are becoming aware of the merits of stainless steel bodies compared with traditionally used coated carbon steel. In response to anticipated demand, Custom Coaches is currently investigating a range of stainless steel grades for future contracts.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 24, March 2003.

Stainless bus carries industry savings

Significant petrol savings, longer service life, lighter tare weight and reduced maintenance costs are just a few features of Australia's first stainless steel bus.

Two prototype buses with grade 304 stainless steel body shells are being manufactured by Gold Coast-based company, Bus Tech Pty Ltd for Volvo Australia.

Stainless steel buses are used extensively in Europe and the United States of America to guard against corrosion caused by icy, salted roads. Corrosion of buses is also a problem in Australia with vehicles subject to regular frame inspections and refurbishment costs. Corrosion in buses results not only from exposure to marine environments, but also from humidity and condensation and recycled water used for cleaning.

Bus Tech Manager, Frank Reardon, said the stainless steel bus had many advantages including corrosion resistance, reduced maintenance and operating costs.

"What will be extremely advantageous for operators is tat they can keep the stainless steel buses on the road for 10 to 15 years without having to constantly address corrosion issues common with carbon steel buses," Mr Reardon said.

A 700 kilogram reduction in tare weight of the bus has been achieved by using stainless steel, resulting in a $2 per kilometre saving in petrol and the ability for each vehicle to carry an additional nine passengers.

"With the increasing price of fuel, we were pushed by our clients to find a way to reduce the tare weight of the bus," Mr Reardon said.

"Using stainless steel has allowed us to provide this extra benefit."

A 15% reduction in production time has also been a feature of the stainless steel bus project.

Each bus is being constructed from 200 metre of square hollow sections (SHS) and 600 kilograms of stainless steel sheet, all grade 304 with a 2B finish.

The exterior and interior of the buses are attached to the stainless steel shell with a polyurethane adhesive, providing a bond line to keep out water and dust.

The exterior and interior of the buses are attached to the stainless steel shell with a polyurethane adhesive, providing a bond line to keep out water and dust.Fabrication of the stainless steel components was undertaken by Brisbane fabricators Metal Tech Industries and BJR Metal Rolling & Pressing, then delivered to Bus Tech for assembly. Stainless steel for the buses was supplied by ASSDA member Austral Wright Metals.

ASSDA provided literature and an in-house stainless steel seminar during the planning stages of the project.

The buses will be delivered to companies in Liverpool, New South Wales and the Gold Coast.

Mr Reardon said Bus Tech was pleased with the project and hopes to adopt stainless steel as a standard for their buses.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 18, May 2001.