Logo


Stainless Strengthens Walls

The devastation of the 1989 Newcastle earthquake resulted in a revision of standards specifying building materials and products to be used in differing environments. 

One of the products that came under close scrutiny was wall ties (also known as brick ties).

Assessment of the damage after the earthquake found that many walls had 'peeled away' from building structures due to deteriorated wall ties.

A wall tie connects masonry to the structural backing which supports the wall. The most common wall ties are manufactured out of galvanised steel.

Australian Standard AS 3700 - 1998 revised the conditions under which wall ties are used and made recommendations about the types of material that should be used in different environments.

The Standard specifies that 316 or 316L stainless steel wall ties should be used in 'R4' category environments. These are severe marine environments, usually up to 1 00 metres from a nonsurf coast or one kilometre from a surf coast, where the highest airborne salinity level at the exterior of the masonry is 300 g/m2/day.

In such environments the chlorides in the air make it highly corrosive and not suitable for wall ties manufactured from materials that are susceptible to corrosion.

However this requirement is the subject of debate, with some specialists suggesting that corrosive environments stretch well beyond the distances specified in the Standard.

The use of stainless steel wall ties as suggested in the Standard will increase the safety and durability of buildings in corrosive environments for a very small increase in the overall cost. This again leads to the debate about what constitutes a corrosive environment, and whether the Standard should be more conservative.

The revised Standard has been incorporated into the Building Code of Australia and is mandatory for many provisions in the Code. The Australian Building Codes Board anticipates AS3700 - 1998 will become mandatory for the Housing Provisions in January 2000.

Thus, opportunities exist for the stainless industry to be proactive in its approach to such issues, as well as to investigate the use of stainless in other building applications, where durability and strength are principal concerns.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 13, May 1999.

Stainless Make Over for Brisbane Landmark

New (and extended) life has been injected into a Brisbane landmark courtesy of a stainless make over worth about $1.2 million. 

In an application believed to be the first of its kind in Queensland, engineers have used grade 316 stainless steel to replace the bearings on Brisbane's Victoria Bridge.

The transition from original carbon steel to stainless has increased the service life of the bearings to at least 50 years from 30 years, giving the Brisbane City Council at least 20 years before the enormous labour and logistical costs of servicing bearings is required.

he bridge, opened in 1969, spans the Brisbane River between the Central Business District and South Bank and is a major arterial link in the city's transport system. Any interruption to traffic flow is disruptive and costly.

Corrosion of the bridge bearings has always been an issue due to its proximity to tidal water and also from the corrosive influence of droppings by pigeons that nest around the bearings.

The Brisbane City Council hired an independent consultant, Dr Nick Stevens, to design the bearings and advise on technical issues associated with their replacement. After consultation with Hercules Engineering the use of stainless steel was recommended.

Principal Asset Officer, Structures, Brisbane City Council. Dr Peter Shaw said although the stainless steel bearings were marginally more expensive than carbon steel, the extended service life offered by stainless negated the Council's initial concerns.

"The initial outlay is completely negligible compared with the extended service life that stainless steel provides and the cost of installation," Dr Shaw said.

"We (the Council) can now wait at least an extra 20, hopefully 50 years before we need to plan such a major operation."

In future the bearings should suffer wear only and hence should require only replacement of the pot This operation should be far cheaper than complete bearing replacement.

Examination of the 30 year old carbon steel bearings showed severe overall corrosion, deep gouge marks and pitting corrosion where the PTFE (teflon) between some of the bearing plates had completely worn away.

Twin pot sliding bearings, and single pot fixed bearings were custom made for the project and installed on site. Grade 316 stainless steel was used for all steel components of the bearings, separated from the mild steel bolts and nuts by synthetic washers. The surfaces on the sliding components of the bearings were polished to a mirror finish to minimise friction.

Grade 304 stainless steel woven mesh was installed around the bearings to keep the pigeons out and further protect against corrosion.

The bearings were fabricated by Hercules Engineering in Sydney with stainless steel supplied by ASSDA member Sandvik Australia.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 16, August 2000.

Let the Games Begin!

When millions around the world watch the Sydney Olympic Games this September, they will also be experiencing the best of Australian architecture, with particular emphasis on stainless steel.

Stadium Australia, located at Homebush Bay in Sydney's inner city in the centrepiece of the Olympic site. Here, events such as the opening and closing ceremonies and the track and field program will be played out. Closer examination of the sit reveals the use of stainless steel in a myriad of applications, both aesthetic and functional. Perhaps more importantly, the use of stainless steel helps meet the organiser's "green" commitment: to use materials with minimal impact on the environment and designs that reduce waste and conserve resources.

THE STADIUM
Seating 110,000, Stadium Australia is the largest stadium in the history of the Olympic Games. To give an idea of its size, the two main curved trusses span 296 metres and four Boeing 747s would fit side by side under the span of the main arch.

The roofing material was supplied by ASSDA member Atlas Steels (Australia) Pty Ltd, the handrails by ASSDA member Sandvik Australia.

Nineteen lighting towers, representing the number of cities in which the Olympic Games have been held to date, stand like sentinels guarding the entrance to Stadium Australia.

The towers consist mostly of concrete and painted steel, but grade 316 stainless steel rods, 25 millimetres in diameter, provide tension in each corner, while 316 doors and infill panels, with a No. 4 finish, exist at ground level.

The names of each of the cities where the Games have been held are glass-bead blasted on to grade 316 sheet with a No. 4 finish.

These towers each carry solar panels that contribute to the public elecricity grid an amount of power equal to that consumed by the towers at night.

At the bottom of one of the towers is a Munich Memorial to honour the athletes who died at the 1972 Munich Olympics. The memorial consists of three plaques fabricated from grade 316 stainless steel and glass, the names being engraved and paint filled in a surface with a No. 4 finish. Stainless steel channel sections, glass bead blasted on the inside and mirror polished were used around some of the edges.

Spread over six levels, the kitchens at Stadium Australia will see almost as much action as the field! Anticipated to feed about 110,000 people every day during competition, the kitchens have been fitted out with stainless steel equipment including benches, exhaust hoods, 200 deep-fat fryers and 300 upright refrigerators. ASSDA members Curtin Foodservice Equipment Pty Ltd supplied a bulk of the equipment, including over four and a half kilometres of stainless steel benches, 145 stainless steel hi-velocity extraction hoods, 200 deep-fat fryers, bain maries, refrigeration equipment, bulk and plated hot food holding carts and more than 200 mobile trolleys. Grade 304 stainless steel for the equipment was provided by ASSDA member Fagersta Steel.

THE OLYMPIC VILLAGE
Home to 15,000 athletes, officials and coaches during competition, the Olympic Village reflects stainless steel's contribution to the "Green Games". 6,000 kilograms (10,500 square metres) of grade 316 stainless steel mesh were installed to provide a chemical-free termite barrier to over 500 houses in the Village.

Fabricated and installed by Termi-Mesh Sydney Pty Ltd, the stainless steel mesh provides a physical barrier around the building perimeter and is collar clamped to pipes and other entry points. The result is a permanent obstruction to termites that eliminates the use of potentially dangerous chemicals.

OLYMPIC BOULEVARD
Olympic Boulevard, which passes key venues such as Stadium Australia and the Aquatic Centre, features spectacular fountains with stainless steel components.

Water jets, each covered by a grade 316 stainless steel cowl, provide a cascading arch at Fig Grove.

Fabricated grade 316 stainless steel gratings, black chrome plated so they are almost invisible under water, are used as safety screens. Grade 316 sections are also used to ensure the water cascades evenly along the length of the feature and as structural supports.

At the far end of the Boulevard is a fountain featuring lines of tubular water jets. Each jet comprises an inner structure of grade 316 stainless steel tubes clad with 3 millimetre thick 316 sheet, formed into a tapered cylindrical section with a No. 4 finish.

The underground pump house receives fresh air through spiral, welded ducting consisting of 250 millimetre diameter grade 316 stainless steel. A nearby wooden viewing pier has 316 handrails on galvanised steel uprights.

THE TORCH
Perhaps the most evocative symbol of the Games is the Olympic Torch, which carries the flame from Olympia in Greece to Stadium Australia, via the Olympic Torch Relay.

he design of the approximately 1 kilogram, 72 centimetre tall torch includes three layers representing earth, fire and water. The inner layer is polished stainless steel, the middle layer anodized aluminium and the outer layer specially coated aluminium.

Thin grade 316 stainless steel strip was used to form a skin inside the grade 430 stainless steel tube inner layer, acting as a shield against heat, wind and rain. Also, very fine (25 micron opening) 316 stainless steel gauze was installed as a final filter to clean the liquid propane/butane gas mixture that fuels the torch, thereby preventing contaminants from extinguishing the flame.

The torch was fabricated by Sydney firm GA & L Harrington, who produced over 14,000 torches available for purchase by the 10,000 runners participating in the Torch Relay.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 16, August 2000.

Stainless Export Defies Elements

Sixty tonnes of stainless steel has been exported to Hong Kong as part of an innovative Australian-designed and manufactured kit form, large span skylight project worth three quarters of a million dollars. 

The 42 gable trussed skylights and sub-frames in varying sizes up to four metres wide and eight metres long were installed in a $90 million dollar treatment plant commissioned by the Hong Kong Government.

Grade 316 stainless steel was used for the skylight's precision pre-cut sub-frame members, welded maintenance ladders, lntalok mechanism assemblies, special profiles, on sight assembly jigs, pivots and fixings.

The project specified that the skylights be easily removed from the roof to allow crane access to equipment in the building. However, the skylights also had to be strong enough to withstand Hong Kong's coastal gale force winds. Sky Roof International (Victoria) undertook the project.

Sky Roof Director, lan Howe, said the specifier's requirements and environmental concerns were met by adapting stainless steel to the company's lntalok cyclonic glazing frame system.

"The government specified that they wanted something striking, low maintenance and durable," Mr Howe said.

"As the frames had to be robust for lifting and withstand the conditions inherent in a coastal region, the obvious choice was stainless steel."

The skylight was designed to use wind uplift force to operate the lntalok hold down mechanism.

When the aluminium skylight structure is forced skyward by wind suction on the glazing, the small surface area of the stainless steel sub-frame is unaffected. This creates a differential force between the skylight and the sub-frame which is transmitted to the lntalok mechanism via the stainless steel ladders. The stronger the wind uplift on the skylight, the tighter the stainless steel lntalok engages the building.

All the prefabricated stainless steel components for the skylights were produced in a zircon glass bead blasted finish by ASSDA member Hart to Hart Fabrications (Dandenong, Victoria).

The skylights were then shipped to Hong Kong in fully fabricated kit form for easy on site assembly.

Mr Howe said ASSDA's Australian Stainless Reference Manual was vital in providing stainless steel technical and supply information.

"I found the Reference Manual and other pieces of information very useful in learning more about stainless steel and also in helping me find a fabricator for the job - Hart to Hart Fabrications," he said.

Following the success of the Hong Kong project, Sky Roof International is working on a design for a skylight featuring stainless steel glazing frames.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 17, January 2001.

Stainless Strength for Bridge Projects

The Tasmanian Government has embarked on a series of bridge renewal projects, using stainless steel reinforced pre-cast concrete to replace old timber structures.

The Barnes Creek bridge is the first of three to be rebuilt on Brunie Island, south of Hobart. It utilised 7.5 tonnes of grade 316 and duplex 2205 stainless reinforcing bar in a size range of 12 to 25mm supplied by ASSDA member Arminox Australia Pty Ltd.

The Tasmanian Department of Infrastructure, Energy and Resources specified stainless steel for the reinforcing to save on ongoing maintenance costs. The location of the bridge presents construction and maintenance challenges, with the site only accessible by ferry.

The grade was selected to meet the demands of an aggressive marine environment. The bridge is subject to salt-laden winds and salt water covers the foundations at high tide. The 6.5m bridge, which connects local rural and residential areas, has a service life expectancy in excess of 100 years.

SORELL CAUSEWAY
Another of the Department's major projects is the construction of a new 490m bridge connecting the Tasmanian east coast to the Tasman Peninsula. The new Sorell Causeway has been designed to cater for heavy vehicles, a high volume of local traffic and tourists travelling from Hobart to Port Arthur. A small quantity of only 6.5 tonnes of stainless steel 316 and duplex 2205 reinforcing is being used in the critical area of the pile cappings.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 20, February 2002.

Walking on Water

Pedestrians using Brisbane’s scenic RiverWalk when it opens next March will be strolling across 150 tonnes of stainless steel reinforcing, embedded in 287 concrete pontoons linked to form an 875 metre long walkway from the CBD along the river to New Farm Park.

Although the 5.4 metre wide walkway will feel like a single solid structure, it is actually made up of a series of 13.5 tonne concrete blocks, half of their bulk floating below the water level.

Stainless steel balustrades will preserve open views across to Southbank and back to the CBD while ensuring public safety. These combine subtly curved 600 grit electropolished handrails which give a wave effect and 320 grit polished end-posts and staunchions with an art deco feel.

An overall Ra of 0.5 mm was specified not just for the aesthetics but to provide maximum corrosion resistance for grade 316 stainless in a marine environment and to minimise tea-staining.

Stainless steel wire strung horizontally between the posts will provide a strong safety barrier while fading to invisibility from just a few metres away. Customised tamper-proof electropolished turnbuckles developed by ASSDA member Ronstan International Pty Ltd and the posts inward-curving profile will ensure that RiverWalk meets stringent safety standards.

Night-time illumination will come from Y-shaped light poles placed at 30 metre intervals and spot lighting will highlight decorative elements such as mosaics.

Each section of the balustrade runs the length of an individual pontoon. Sections are joined with a tapered stainless steel sleeve to absorb the small amount of movement from wave action, expected be around 20mm.

AN INNOVATIVE BASE FOR A SCENIC WALKWAY
Assembly of the concrete pontoons involves advanced construction methods modelled on the latest overseas developments and a similar, but much smaller, floating walkway which was successfully built on Melbourne’s Yarra River.

To obtain the necessary strength and buoyancy, high strength 50mPa concrete is reinforced with grade 316 stainless steel. The 10mm and 12mm diameter rebar is fashioned into a cage around a polystyrene core which takes up 85% of the pontoon’s volume. The corrosion-resistant properties of stainless steel reinforcing enable the pontoon to be built with narrower walls than would be the case with conventional reinforcing creating savings in the amount of concrete required.

With stainless steel reinforcing an impressive lifespan is assured, making it the best long-term option in building assets where longevity is desired. The design life of this structure is 100 years.

Funded by the Brisbane City Council (BCC) and developed by a BCC and consultant design team led by project architect Jan Jensen, RiverWalk is one of the city’s most ambitious and forward looking projects. It uses techniques which are new to Australia and draws on the expertise of many construction professionals including stainless steel materials experts, suppliers and fabricators.

ASSDA’s role in the project included detailed specification advice on all aspects of the stainless steel work and provision of detailed answers to technical issues in design and prototyping.

Construction contractor Smithbridge Australia Pty Ltd heads the project team which also includes a number of ASSDA members, including Pryde Fabrication, Arminox Australia Pty Ltd and Stoddart Metal Fabricators.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 22, September 2002.

Stainless Braves the Elements

Advanced engineering solutions are required to handle conditions found on offshore drilling and processing platforms. The saltwater environment is highly corrosive, the flare presents extremes of temperature and the force of winds and currents is constant. The most durable and reliable materials need to be employed, which is why stainless steel plays and important part.

An impressive project making use of stainless' strength and corrosion-resistance is the Bayu Undan Gas Project in the Timor Sea, 5OOkm north of Darwin (pictured). Here, stainless steel is used to line the 18" pipelines between the processing platform and the wellhead platform 8km distant and in thousands of metres of pipes throughout the installation.

SPECIALIST BRIDGE BEARINGS
Stainless steel and high nickel alloy bearings support various bridges, including a 225m long bridge from the drilling platform to the flare. The bearings have been designed by specialist engineering and manufacturing firm Ludowici Ltd of Sydney, working closely with the project consultants TIGA JV of Perth. The bearing shown above is mirror polished to slide ±600mm while supporting a 900 tonne load, with operating temperatures up to 220°C due to the flare. In addition to continuous wave action, the bearing is designed to withstand 160 tonnes of transverse load due to gale force winds during tropical cyclones, as well as "bumps" during installation.

Bayu Undan is a project of Phillips Petroleum Company Australia Pty Ltd. Gas and liquid hydrocarbon reserves were discovered in 1995. It is estimated that the 25km by 15km field has a 25 year life and reserves of 350-400 million barrels of hydrocarbon liquids and 3.4 trillion cubic feet of gas. Work on the site is proceeding with full commercial production due by 2004. The first phase of the development, representing a US$1.4 billion investment, involves production and processing of wet gas. A second phase is planned to harvest the field's gas reserves.

Ludowici became involved in Bayu Undan in mid 2001, when it was chosen to design, manufacture, test and supply eight highly complex stainless steel pot-type bearings.

The design team drew on technical expertise of the Australian Stainless Steel Development Association and the Nickel Development Institute to produce a suitable design.

BUILT TO WITHSTAND WIND, WAVES AND WATER
The brief presented some unique challenges including massive steel superstructures requiring high-strength low-friction supports, to be left maintenance-free in a remote, aggressive tropical marine environment. Some were required to have uplift capacity, all were to be resistant to salt build-up, and all were required to be virtually maintenance free for a 25 year life. Whilst the majority of the bearing components ('pot' cylinders and pistons) were made from 316 and 316L stainless steel, the large-movement slide plates were made from grade 2205 duplex stainless steel, with a facing of polished Inconel 625, fully TIG welded around its perimeter. Thermal coefficients of expansion of mating parts were matched. Assembled bearings were tested in overload and friction, both at ambient temperature at 140°C.

The bearings were fabricated at the firm's Castle Hill, Sydney factory and transported to Batam, Indonesia where they were incorporated into the structure for the final trip to site.

The bearings measure up to 2m long and weigh up to 3 tonne each with attachments plates. They were also designed to withstand severe impact during installation.

The various bridges, platforms and piping are currently bring assembled.

For more information on Bayu Undan, visit www.offshore-technology.com/projects/bayu-undan

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 23, December 2002.

Stainless Enclosures Built to Last

Australian-made weighing technology is the first choice for global giant Caterpillar Inc., the world's leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment.

Local firm Transcale, designers and manufacturers of electronic weighing equipment specifically for the mining and transport industries, exports its equipment worldwide to over 11 countries in North and South America, Southern Africa and South East Asia.

Transcale's focus on the mining sector means that cutting edge technology needs to be protected from some of the harshest environments in the world. Extremes of heat and clod, record rainfalls, drought, high salt or other corrosive minerals are just a few of the considerations in the design process. Transcale's equipment is housed in stainless steel enclosures.

Over the last six years Transcale has used both 'off the shelf' boxes from companies such as ASSDA member B & R Enclosures, and custom-built stainless steel enclosures. One of the custom-built enclosures manufactured by MT Sheet Metal in Archerfield, Brisbane uses a 316 N4 brush finish stainless steel supplied to MT by ASSDA member Atlas Steels. B & R Enclosures also manufactures its high performance enclosures using grade 316 stainless with an N4 finish and fully welded body to withstand corrosive atmospheric conditions.

Both Transcale and its customers report that they are impressed with the long-term performance of these enclosures. According to Transcale, investing just a few extra dollars up front by choosing stainless for their enclosures produces tangible rewards by way of repeat business and an enhanced reputation.

For example, one of Transcale's major clients, US-based Caterpillar Inc., recently stated its intention to use Transcale truck scales exclusively for all replacement systems in its mining departments globally. Caterpillar's considerations for choice of product were quality and reliability along with appearance and after sales support.

In Australia, a major interstate line haul company has just taken delivery of a third Transcale dynamic axle weighing system, giving it a unit in Melbourne, Sydney and now Brisbane. In Brisbane the system has been installed at the Port of Brisbane facility, where salt air was one of the considerations. This system is protected from the elements by an MT Sheet Metal enclosure.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 23, December 2002.

Savings for Stainless


Posted 30 November 2003

Researchers from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and the Cooperative Research Centre for Welded Structures (CRC-WS) have developed a welding process for stainless steels and other corrosion-resistant metals that is significantly faster, cheaper and easier than current practices.

The patented process is an elaboration of standard gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and uses a specially designed torch that establishes and maintains a ‘keyhole’ at the joint.

The weld then proceeds, zipper-like, with the melted sides of the keyhole fusing at the back as the torch melts new material in front of it.

Keyhole GTAW is most effective for materials of low thermal conductivity, such as titanium and stainless steel, but does not work with good thermal conductors such as aluminium.

‘In comparison to conventional GTAW, machining of the edges to be joined is greatly reduced, it uses about one-twentieth the filler material, and reduces the welding time by about tenfold’ says Dr Ted Summerville, a commercial manager at CSIRO Manufacturing & Infrastructure Technology in Adelaide.

Applications of the technology include tube making, welding of rotatable products such as pipes and the joining of large sheets. The technology is particularly advantageous for welding thicker materials.

In keyhole welding, the arc melts the metal right through on both sides of the joint. Via surface tension, this establishes a stable structure which joins the front and rear surfaces through the width of the material. The weld pool is thus anchored, preventing the ejection of molten material.

The result is a process which is not only relatively inexpensive to acquire, but is also cheap to operate. The torch melts right through the joint where the two metal pieces to be welded abut, and molten metal extends through the depth of the material – up to 12mm thick for steels and 16mm for titanium alloys.

Very little filler material is needed to make the joint – about 50g/m for welding 12mm thick stainless steel, compared with about 1kg/m using conventional GTAW. And the joint is made in one pass, compared with up to seven for the thickest steels and titanium alloys.

Reduction to a single pass means that the metal at the site of the weld is only at risk of contamination once, whereas if it is welded seven times, there are seven opportunities for contamination.

The lack of multiple passes also vastly increases welding productivity. Typical examples of keyhole performance include single-pass welding of 12mm thick austenitic stainless steel at speeds of 300mm/min, 8mm carbon–manganese steel at 500mm/min, and 3mm ferritic stainless steel at 1000mm/min.

In one comparison, the welding time of 35min/m for 12mm stainless steel plate using conventional GTAW was reduced to <3.5min/m using the keyhole method.

And the quality of the welds is generally excellent. ‘We have qualified the process against a range of American standards’, says Dr Summerville, ‘and it has always passed’.

In addition, it is clean welding process. Fume generation using conventional GTAW is very low, and the same is true for keyhole GTAW.

The drawback to keyhole GTAW is that the torch can only be used in the conventional downhand position – the joint must be made between horizontal sheets with the torch vertical.

Recent work, however, has demonstrated that it is possible to operate the technology ‘out-of-position’, and this could lead to many new applications in the future.

‘If keyhole welding could be done in any position – for instance, if you could rotate the torch around pipe – it would increase the market for the technology by about ten times’, says Dr Summerville.

The technology is currently being licensed by the joint owners of the technology – CSIRO and the CRC-WS – and licencees are already successfully applying the technology in USA and Finland.

A number of licensees in these markets have reported significant productivity improvements.

Licenses for the keyhole welding technology are being offered in Australia, Europe and USA for use in the manufacture of products ranging from spiral-welded pipe to railway rolling stock.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 26, November 2003.

Solving the puzzle with stainless mainline fittings

Choosing mainline fittings for irrigation applications can often seem like building a giant puzzle with elbows, tees, crosses and coupler sets - various fittings required to connect irrigation pipework together.

Pierce AustraliaHowever, Geoff Mellows from Yarrawonga Irrigation in Victoria may have solved the puzzle by using stainless steel mainline fittings - something that plastic fittings cannot yet match.

Poly, pvc and avs fittings are common materials in irrigation applications but because they are produced out of a mould, the combinations of size and outlet configuration are restricted.

Mellows said that by using stainless mainline fittings by ASSDA member, Pierce Australia, he can now “manipulate the angle, the shape, the variation and combination of outlets.“

The difference is simple. PVC and poly are bolted on, or welded and glued - making it difficult to change fittings”.

Stainless steel mainline fittings are the only rubber-ring jointed fittings available on the marketplace manufactured to the customers specific needs and can be fitted on any other combination because they are fabricated.

Stainless steel mainline fittings also provide flexibility of design in the angle of the fittings.

This also applies to the combination of outlets on those fittings and any other additional connections to that fitting.

With versatile stainless steel fittings, Mellows advice to customers is simple - “lay the pipe first and worry about the fittings later!”

This article featured in Australia Stainless Issue 28, May 2004.

Photos courtesy of Pierce Australia.

Stainless delivers savings for Sydney Water

Cleaner beaches and major water savings will be the chief benefits of the largest Sydney Water construction project ever undertaken on the New South Wales south coast.

ASSDA Member, Roladuct Spiral Tubing, supplied approximately 60 tonnes of grade 316 and 316L stainless steel tubing and associated fittings for the Wollongong Sewage Treatment Plant.The $197 million Illawarra Wastewater Strategy will see an overhaul of the 40-year-old Wollongong sewage treatment plant (STP) including the construction of a major new water recycling plant, high level (tertiary) treatment processes and ultraviolet disinfection systems.

ASSDA member, Roladuct Spiral Tubing, supplied approximately 60 tonnes of grade 316 and 316L stainless spiral tubing and associated fittings in 2mm to 5mm thicknesses for the project.

These materials were provided to Total Process Services for use throughout the Wollongong STP for the majority of the above-ground process lines.

An additional supply of 35 tonnes of grade 316 stainless tube and pipe fittings were provided by ASSDA Major Sponsor, Atlas Specialty Metals.

Sydney Water’s head contractor for the project is the Walter-Veolia Joint Venture. Walter Construction Group (Walter) is responsible for managing the delivery of the project and undertaking civil infrastructure construction at the treatment plants. Veolia Water Systems Australia (Veolia) is responsible for the process, mechanical and electrical design, supply, installation, commissioning and operational advice.

An additional supply of 35 tonnes of grade 316 stainless tube and pipe fittings were provided by ASSDA Major Sponsor, Atlas Specialty Metals The project’s most dramatic transformations are taking place at the Wollongong sewage treatment plant, where a 21 million litre bioreactor forms the centre-piece of the upgraded plant. Designed to remove organic impurities and nutrients from wastewater, the base of the bioreactor tank was poured over a continuous 15-hour period.

The design approach redirects wastewater from treatment plants at Bellambi and Port Kembla to the Wollongong facility. The Bellambi and Port Kembla plants will be converted to specialised storm-flow treatment facilities which will be used only in extreme wet weather.

The new Wollongong plant will also operate a reuse facility - supplying high quality treated wastewater to BlueScope Steel and cutting demand for fresh water from the local Avon Dam by about 20 percent. The upgraded sewage treatment plant is due for completion in mid 2005. The Illawarra Wastewater Strategy is part of WaterPlan 21, Sydney Water’s long-term strategy for sustainable water and wastewater management.

ASSDA provides technical advice and access to resources on the water and wastewater industries - for details phone 07 3220 0722.

ASSDA Major Sponsor, The Nickel Institute, can provide essential information on waste water. This information is available for download from www.stainlesswater.org.

Standards Australia distributes the Water Services Specification (WS-SPEC:2000) incorporating guidelines for stainless steel. Visit www.standards.com.au for purchase.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 28, May 2004.

Specifying Stainless Steel Pressure Piping for High Rise Buildings

Brisbane's tallest residential tower, The Aurora will stand 69 levels and will set an important precedent in the use of stainless steel pressure piping in high rise buildings when the Bovis Lend Lease project is completed in January 2006

 

Situated on the corner of Queen, Eagle and Wharf Streets in the Brisbane CBD, The Aurora utilises stainless steel pressure piping instead of conventional copper piping to ensure adequate water pressure for each of the 478 two and three bedroom apartments in the $250 million development.

ASSDA member, Blucher Australia, supplied approximately 250m x 108mm OD x 2mm Mapress tube and fittings, 90 degree and 45 degree bends, sockets, flange adaptors and tees in grade 316 stainless steel.

The Aurora project is different to conventional installations due to a single metered water supply being provided to a common pump set for both potable and fire fighting services.

The potable supply is then directly pumped to a reservoir at the top of the building, thus eliminating large costs of having to set aside floors for transfer tanks, pumps etc.

The fire service is branched off the potable supply immediately after the pump set and separated with a non-return valve allowing potable supply to continue the 70 storey rise to the top floor gravity feed tank. The potable water supply is to be an approved system and also able to withstand both the head pressure created by the vertical rise and pressure of emergency back up pumps in the event of a fire, which in this case is 2490 kPa.

The Mapress 316 Stainless Steel Press-Fit System was recommended by Mark Tapley of Plumbing Contractor Tapworth and Booth and specified by Hydramellenia, the subsidiary of Brisbane Hydraulic consultants Steve Paul & Partners. The system is able to withstand a high working pressure of up to 2600 kPa or 26 Bar. The system can be pressure tested up to 4000 kPa or 40 Bar.

Blucher Australia is presently proceeding with Standards Australia to obtain MP 52 certification for potable water supply and once obtained, the Mapress System will be the only stainless steel system, complete with tubes and fittings to achieve this certification.

The Mapress Stainless Steel Press-Fit System carries European pressure certification suitable for this particular application and the pressure rating for the system. No other stainless steel 'system' holds an MP 52 certification so the major change was acceptance by Brisbane City Council.

The Mapress Stainless Steel Press-Fit System was chosen for a combination of reasons including longevity, ease of installation and the system's ability to handle high pressure.

As a part of Blucher Australia's guarantee and OH&S requirements, Blucher Australia Technical Manager, Ian Johnson trained Project Manager Mark Tapley, Site Foreman Steve Woods and four other employees involved in The Aurora project in the use of the specialised Hydraulic Press-Fit tool and installation procedures.

Blucher Australia hold stock of all the stainless steel components required to do the installation. Delivery, in conjunction with the good organisation skills of Steve Wood of Tapworth and Booth, was straight forward.

Hydramellenia, the subsidiary of Steve Paul and Partners, is convinced of the benefits and is currently specifying the Mapress system for other projects. Blucher Australia has already supplied to the smaller Metropole Apartments Project, also in Brisbane, and has received inquiries from other consultants who have heard of this project.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 30, January 2005.

Stainless advance for water treatment plant

Never has there been a time in Australia when water preservation was so critical.  As populations rise and dam levels fall, the importance of treating and reusing water has become not a question of “if” but a question of “when”.

bundambaThe construction of Bundamba Advanced Water Treatment Plant (BAWTP) west of Brisbane is aimed at alleviating pressure on South East Queensland’s existing dams and waterways by providing an alternate water supply for end users in the region, initially Swanbank power station.  

The project has had great flow on benefits for the Australian stainless steel industry as infrastructure requirements point to the material for its strength, corrosion resistance and application performance.

The world-class BAWTP is a joint venture between Thiess Pty Ltd and Black & Veatch, who are responsible for the engineering, design, procurement and construction. Management of the project is in alliance with the Queensland Government. A number of ASSDA members were sub-contracted by Thiess Pty Ltd for various stages of the project, including ASSDA Accredited Fabricator D&R Stainless, Perfab Engineering and Stainless Pipe and Fittings Australia.

Following a tender process, D&R Stainless was engaged for off-site pipe spooling. The quantity of stainless steel used for the job, including around 3000 flanges, meant that D&R Stainless was issued with the materials by Thiess Pty Ltd as needed.  

Many of the piping materials for the first two stages of the project were supplied to Thiess Pty Ltd by Stainless Pipe and Fittings.  Materials were in excess of 350 tonnes and included pipe, pipe fittings and flanges in grade 316L with sizes ranging from 25-600nb.

 

bundamba2Once delivered, D&R Stainless cut and bevelled the pipe and then welded and passivated internally and externally before undergoing hydro testing.

D&R Stainless Director Karl Manders said that, not only did the pipes use grade 316, but they were also fabricated to Australian Standard 4041, class 1.

“Because the pipework adhered to such a high standard, 10% of all welds were x-rayed for quality,” he says. Passivation of the pipe welds involved applying pickling paste inside and out, and then scrubbing and flushing to avoid loose scale, important for the fine filtration of the water treatment plant.

Karl says quality was something Thiess Pty Ltd took very seriously, with a welding inspector and quality checker appointed at their premises.

“This was to ensure all welding and passivation was performed at the highest standard, and also to ensure that production off-site was consistent with installation schedules onsite”.

Perfab Engineering was also sub-contracted by Thiess Pty Ltd for the manufacture of the reverse osmosis (RO) skids at its workshops in Newcastle, working closely with the designers from suppliers Koch Membrane Systems in the United States.

The work carried out by Perfab included fabrication and surface treatment of the carbon steel skid frames, fabrication of the stainless steel pipework, full mechanical installation of the valves, instrumentation and RO pressure vessels, pneumatic fitout, electric fitout and testing.

The high pressure pipe spools were fabricated from Sch 40S pipe with 300# flanges and low pressure pipe spools from Sch 10S pipe with 150# flanges.

Perfab has three orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (or TIG) machines that were operated around the clock to ensure the tight delivery times were achieved, however Perfab Engineering General Manager Damien Ryba says “the biggest contributor to the success of the job was having a well trained, highly skilled and productive workforce committed to the success of the project”.

At present, the BAWTP 1A is in full operation and delivering water to the Swanbank Power Station. Thiess Black and Veatch Director, Gus Atmeh, said that the BAWTP 1A project was delivered ahead of schedule and this was due to the support of the project by high quality stainless steel fabrication shops from across Australia and particularly from South East Queensland, who provided stainless steel components for state of the art process equipment and piping: “Without them we could not have made it on time.”

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 41

Stainless Steel and Plumbing Standards

After three years of development, the first stage of a Standard covering the grade and dimensions of stainless steel pipes and tubes suitable for water supply and drainage systems has been completed. This interim Standard will be converted to a full Australian Standard in 2009.

The Standards Committee included ASSDA representative Neil McPherson of OneSteel, supported by the Technical Committee.

To avoid possible confusion and protect against corrosion problems in aggressive water supply areas, grades 316 and 316L are specified for the plumbing installation Code of Practice. All materials that satisfy the requirement for water supply and drainage systems must be included in the installation Standard AS/NZS 3500 Parts 1 & 2, which covers the material, grade and approved jointing method for piping systems.

If a material is included in Part 1 Water Supply (for drinking water), it will need to be certified against a product standard to Level 1, while Part 2 Drainage & Sanitary Plumbing requires Level 2 certification. The main difference is that Level 1 products require testing under AS4020 Material in Contact with Drinking Water to confirm lack of water contamination. Stainless steel product readily passes this testing.

All fittings, including the mechanical jointed pressfit and roll grooved types used for the plumbing services, are also tested and certified. AS3688 Metallic End Connectors defines the criteria against which these fittings are certified, including the additional pressure and fatigue testing to demonstrate strength of joint assembly.

Stainless steel using mechanical jointing systems

Mild steel, copper tube and plastic pipes have dominated building water systems for many years. However, high rise developments over recent decades have changed the building industry requirements for water supply and fire protection systems. These systems now require materials with a much higher pressure rating and corrosion resistance.

Stainless steel is recognised as a material most suited to meet these requirements. However, older on-site methods for jointing and fabrication has limited the use of stainless steel.

The approval of mechanical pressfit and roll grooved systems for all water systems has provided a major market for stainless. Stainless steel pipes and fittings have been installed as a solution to specific technical issues including a corrosive environment, high pressure requirements of the hydraulic services system, high operating temperature, or where the project owners are looking for a whole-of-life sustainable product solution.

The following projects illustrate some design and installation specifications around Australia.

Casey Aged Care Facility, Heidelberg, Victoria

108mm and 76mm tube in 316L was supplied by Blucher for a low pressure system feeding rainwater from storage tanks to pumps. Stainless steel was chosen due to concern of longevity and water contamination from other materials due to water levels in storage tanks being low or empty for long periods during dry spells. The Mapress stainless steel pressfitting system was familiar to the plumbing contractor who felt it was labour saving and easy to install. Plastic pipes were used from the roof to the plastic rainwater storage tanks.

Western Corridor Recycled Water Project, SE Queensland

The Mapress 316 pressure system was chosen for rapid, simple installation. There was a lack of pipe fitters available so socket welding was not possible and other trades made the installation. Sizes ranged from 15 to 54mm with butyl rubber sealing rings containing pressures up to 1,000kPa. The stainless steel was used for potable, treated and fire water as well as compressed air. The Mapress system supplied by Blucher has been used in all three waste water treatment plants in the Western Corridor as well as in the Gold Coast Desalination Plant.

Centre Court Business Park, North Ryde, NSW

Heating and chilled/condenser water installations used 316L schedule 5 pipe in both 50 and 100mm diameter in this 30,000m2 low rise complex. Stainless steel offered reliable protection from corrosion and the Victaulic roll grooved system offered ease of assembly.

Suncorp building, Sydney CBD

Refurbishment of the combined fire and drinking water system in a 1972 building used OneSteel Building Services supplied 316L schedule 10 pipe and fittings in 3m, pre grooved lengths for assembly in restricted duct spaces. The 43 floors plus 3 basements ensured high pressure requiring strong stainless steel which also met the drinking water AS4020 requirements.

Centrepoint Tower, Sydney CBD

Stainless steel pipe and fittings were supplied by OneSteel Building Services to replace corroded carbon steel in the 305m tall tower. Systems changed were the fire and potable water and the gas lines. 300m of 316L was supplied in 2.7m lengths which were roll grooved and assembled using Victaulic couplings in a very constricted service duct. Sizes used were 100mm and 50mm in schedule 10 except for gas lines in schedule 40.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 45, Summer 2009.

Train travel in stainless style

Benefits in the areas of cost, appearance and durability were the key factors in the NSW State Rail Authority's decision to specify stainless steel for the construction of a fleet of new passenger trains to be delivered over the next five years.

United Goninan, a leading designer and manufacturer of railway rolling stock based in Newcastle, has been chosen to design and manufacture 161 double deck electric multiple unit (EMU) passenger cars over three stages.

Stage 1, to be completed in 2006, comprises 41 cars, with 80 to be delivered the following year and a further 40 cars the year after. The total value of the contract comes to $450 million.

The new rail car builds on the knowledge United Goninan has amassed using stainless steel in over 800 cars to date. It combines the maintenance advantages and modern styling of its previous flagship model, Tangara, with new crashworthiness requirements.

Tangara has been acknowledged as a worldclass doubledeck electric multiple unit. When it was designed for the same client in the mid-80s, the 450 car contract was the largest ever let in Australia for rolling stock. The minimal maintenance requirements experienced during the service life of these vehicles have been due to durability of stainless steel.

The new cars will be deployed in Sydney and on outer suburban routes in Wyong and Penrith. They will be built according to new crashworthiness requirements which involve specialised construction techniques with stainless steel to create 'crumple zones' to maximise safety in the event of a head-on collision.

Each car body structure will utilise over 11 tonnes of grade 301LT/ST/MT stainless steel sheet, in thicknesses varying between 0.8 and 5mm depending on the component, with 2B and DULL surface finishes. Together the three stages will consume 1800 tonnes of stainless steel worth around $10 million.

The new car's design is sleek and modern. To this end, United Goninan has developed a patented system for spot welding to give the exposed sheeting superior aesthetic appearance.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 24, March 2003.

Stainless vision at Epping - Chatswood rail tunnel

The construction of the Epping to Chatswood rail line in Sydney is the largest publicly funded infrastructure project underway in New South Wales. The project, managed by the Transport Infrastructure Development Corporation, will increase the capacity of the CityRail network and provide direct rail access for the first time to the growing North Ryde/Macquarie Park area. Due to be completed in 2008, the 12.5 kilometre underground passenger line will include four new underground stations at Epping, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park and North Ryde.

Following a tender process, Contractors AW Edwards appointed ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Townsend Group to design, engineer, manufacture and install, for all four stations, a cavern lining/ceiling system, louvre and glass smoke baffles - forming part of the ventilation system. Additionally, they designed, manufactured and installed vitreous enamel panels to public areas, general composite panel cladding to services buildings, 316 stainless steel cladding for lifts and escalators and 304 patterned stainless steel for ceiling features, station facilities cladding, services risers and column cladding.

For the cladding components, Townsend purpose designed and engineered all fixings in 316 stainless steel to meet the high performance requirements of the project. The system also incorporated 304 patterned stainless steel wall and ceiling panels for which Townsend developed a fabrication technique which optimised both the aesthetics and strength of the panel. Overall, the project used some 160 tonnes of stainless steel.

Townsend Group had up to 100 people working on the project at the one time, spread across the 4 rail stations and at their warehouse and manufacturing facility in Sydney. They began their involvement in the project in September 2005, and are expected to complete the contract by April 2007.

This article appeared in Australian Stainess Issue 39 - Autumn 2007.

Photographs by Josh Hill Photography.

Stainless upgrade on track for rail stations

When ASSDA Accredited Fabricator Bridgeman Stainless won a tender to supply stainless steel balustrades for Queensland Rail, supplying quality materials with excellent fabrication techniques was at the forefront of their mind.

The upgrade of Oxford Park and Grovely rail stations in Brisbane’s North West was a 12-month project, headed by Arup and Moggill Constructions, and included significant use of stainless steel for the hand rails and balustrades.

Director Len Webb says the job was an excellent opportunity to showcase stainless steel at its best, rather than reverting to cheaper, less reliable materials and fabrication techniques.

“The project manager, Allan Bolt, and I had a number of meetings with Arup and Moggill to discuss how best to use stainless steel to its advantage,” he says.

Bridgeman Stainless supplied a prototype of the balustrades before any work began, to ensure issues such as tea-staining were addressed.

“By doing ASSDA’s Stainless Steel Specialist Course, we were able to confidently discuss the importance of using certain finishes to help prevent issues such as tea-staining,” Len said.

The project used 54 square metres of plate, and almost 5400 metres of 1.6mm tube in diameters of 50.0mm, 38.1mm and 15.88mm. All stainless steel supplied by Bridgeman was in grade 304 and was polished to a #600 grit.  The tube materials were supplied by Tubesales in Yatala, Queensland and the plate was supplied by Atlas Specialty Metals in Wacol.  The plate was polished by an external contractor.

The balustrades were largely made offsite but then transported to the stations where they were welded together.  The joints were then passivated, re-polished back to the #600 finish and then, finally, cleaned.

A maintenance prevention schedule will be delivered on completion of the job, paying particular attention to those areas where the stainless steel is undercover and not regularly cleaned by rain.

Bridgeman Stainless Project Manager Allan Bolt says the company’s commitment to ongoing education about stainless steel and their dedication to quality workmanship had secured their reputation in the industry.

trainstation

Moggill Constructions Senior Project Manager Marc Kuypers says the emphasis Bridgeman Stainless took on quality showed in their results.
“We hadn’t worked with Bridgeman Stainless before and we are quite impressed with their work,” Marc says.

Arup Superintendent Representative John Rutherfoord said he was particularly impressed by the quality of the work Bridgeman carried out on site.

John, Marc, Len and Allan agreed that the success of the project was due largely to the excellent communication between all parties involved.

Len said, as one of the first ASSDA Accredited Fabricators, Bridgeman Stainless thoroughly endorses the ASSDA Accredition program as it distinguishes fabricators with quality practices within the industry.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 42 - Summer 2008

Stainless integral to bridge's 300 year design life

Queensland’s largest ever road and bridge project will rely, in part, on innovation within the stainless steel industry to meet its design life of 300 years.

The Gateway Upgrade Project in Brisbane, which includes construction of a second Gateway Bridge and is being delivered by Queensland Motorways with design, construction and maintenance by the Leighton Abigroup Joint Venture (LAJV), will use reinforcement bar made for the first time from Outokumpu Group’s LDX 2101® duplex stainless steel.

A total of 130 tonnes of duplex stainless steel will be used in the bridge’s most critical structures: the splash zones of the two main river piers (28 tonnes of LDX 2101® have already been supplied and some Duplex 2205 will be used due to availability of dimensions for certain components).

Gateway Bridge Alliance Manager Gerry van der Wal said LDX2101® was chosen due to its high level of corrosion resistance (close to 316L) and low nickel content, which made it more cost effective and less susceptible to rapidly escalating worldwide nickel prices.

Outokumpu’s Qld and NT Manager Ken Hayes said that in bridge construction, stainless steel should be specified for parts where it makes a positive contribution, such as splash zones and the bridge deck.bridgepillar

“If carbon steel rebar is used, the bridge deck needs a water-proof membrane and the concrete must be of high quality, whereas if stainless rebar is used, reduced concrete cover can be specified, and it is also possible to relax the design criteria with respect to maximum crack width,” he said.

“As a result, with stainless rebar, bridges can be built either with no extra cost or for a lower cost than by using carbon steel reinforcement.”

Mr Hayes said LDX2101® offered the most cost-effective alternative for durable reinforced concrete structures and, due to its good price stability, it offered construction projects vitally important predictability.

“The win-win outcome from the use of LDX2101® is much improved sustainability in our constructed environment,” he said.

Because LDX2101® had never been used for rebar before this project, Outokumpu’s metallurgists carried out extensive tests to ensure it would withstand a high corrosion environment if the concrete were permeated by seawater.

A trial rebar coil was also sent to Atlas Specialty Metals’ Durinox facility in Melbourne to ensure it could be easily straightened.

Durinox Manager Colin McGill said they had to decoil the material, cut it to length and bend it to the appropriate shape.

“This was the first time we had processed the material and there were some challenges we had to overcome because of its very high strength,” Mr McGill said.

Once Outokumpu’s quality system and external testing criteria were approved by LAJV, the initial 28 tonnes of the hot rolled, ribbed, 16mm LDX2101® were delivered to Atlas Specialty Metals in Melbourne in 750kg coils for processing between October and December 2007.

The $1.88 billion Gateway Upgrade Project will be completed in 2011. It includes duplication of the original Gateway Bridge (which was completed in 1986), upgrade to 12km of the Gateway Motorway and construction of a new 7km deviation providing better access to Brisbane Airport.

Just over 20 years after it was constructed, the original Gateway Bridge is now exceeding capacity, carrying more than 100,000 vehicles each day.

When the duplication project is complete, the original bridge will carry six lanes of traffic north and the new bridge will carry six lanes of traffic south.

The new bridge is a 1.6km long balanced cantilever motorway bridge with the main span measuring 260 metres.

This article featured in Australian Stainless Issue 42 - Summer 2008.

Photos courtesy of Leighton Abigroup Joint Venture.

Stainless by the bus load

Newcastle's public transport stocks are to be boosted by the addition of 30 new stainless steel buses, the first of which was delivered this month.

Their advanced design combines passenger comfort with environmental awareness. The Volvo B12BLE bus chassis meets the latest Euro III exhaust emission standards, making it the cleanest diesel bus on Australian roads.The buses are being built by Custom Coaches, the largest Australian bus manufacturer with plants in New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland.

The buses are being built by Custom Coaches, the largest Australian bus manufacturer with plants in New South Wales, South Australia and Queensland. Stainless steel supply is by ASSDA member Fagersta Steels.

The buses have features to make travel easier for visually impaired passengers and those with restricted mobility. They include air-conditioning, anti-lock brakes and graffiti-resistant seats.

In commissioning the buses, the State Transit Authority of NSW emphasized economical operating and maintenance costs, fuel efficiency and competitive whole of life costs. International experience shows stainless steel delivers on these criteria thanks to its corrosion resistance, durability and weight-saving qualities.

The outlook for stainless in bus construction is positive, as more Australian bus owners and operators are becoming aware of the merits of stainless steel bodies compared with traditionally used coated carbon steel. In response to anticipated demand, Custom Coaches is currently investigating a range of stainless steel grades for future contracts.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 24, March 2003.

Stainless bus carries industry savings

Significant petrol savings, longer service life, lighter tare weight and reduced maintenance costs are just a few features of Australia's first stainless steel bus.

Two prototype buses with grade 304 stainless steel body shells are being manufactured by Gold Coast-based company, Bus Tech Pty Ltd for Volvo Australia.

Stainless steel buses are used extensively in Europe and the United States of America to guard against corrosion caused by icy, salted roads. Corrosion of buses is also a problem in Australia with vehicles subject to regular frame inspections and refurbishment costs. Corrosion in buses results not only from exposure to marine environments, but also from humidity and condensation and recycled water used for cleaning.

Bus Tech Manager, Frank Reardon, said the stainless steel bus had many advantages including corrosion resistance, reduced maintenance and operating costs.

"What will be extremely advantageous for operators is tat they can keep the stainless steel buses on the road for 10 to 15 years without having to constantly address corrosion issues common with carbon steel buses," Mr Reardon said.

A 700 kilogram reduction in tare weight of the bus has been achieved by using stainless steel, resulting in a $2 per kilometre saving in petrol and the ability for each vehicle to carry an additional nine passengers.

"With the increasing price of fuel, we were pushed by our clients to find a way to reduce the tare weight of the bus," Mr Reardon said.

"Using stainless steel has allowed us to provide this extra benefit."

A 15% reduction in production time has also been a feature of the stainless steel bus project.

Each bus is being constructed from 200 metre of square hollow sections (SHS) and 600 kilograms of stainless steel sheet, all grade 304 with a 2B finish.

The exterior and interior of the buses are attached to the stainless steel shell with a polyurethane adhesive, providing a bond line to keep out water and dust.

The exterior and interior of the buses are attached to the stainless steel shell with a polyurethane adhesive, providing a bond line to keep out water and dust.Fabrication of the stainless steel components was undertaken by Brisbane fabricators Metal Tech Industries and BJR Metal Rolling & Pressing, then delivered to Bus Tech for assembly. Stainless steel for the buses was supplied by ASSDA member Austral Wright Metals.

ASSDA provided literature and an in-house stainless steel seminar during the planning stages of the project.

The buses will be delivered to companies in Liverpool, New South Wales and the Gold Coast.

Mr Reardon said Bus Tech was pleased with the project and hopes to adopt stainless steel as a standard for their buses.

This article featured in Australian Stainless magazine - Issue 18, May 2001.